NAVY report detailing horrific decisions that have cost the lives of thousands of people. Dumping Nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay
Conspiracy to cover up the contamination.
DTIC AD0473908: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3 pp.102-115
Note: “The Cover Up” is on page 109
[Note all page numbers and notes will be enclosed in these brackets]
Code 180 A
Bureau of Ships
Washington 25, D.C.
10 December 1946
Subject: Conference on Radiological Safety; Report of.
Time: 0910, 27 November 1946.
Place: Navy Department, Bureau of Ships Room T3-2703.
Present: R.Adm.SOLBERG (BuShips) Col. NICHOLS (ManhatDist)
Capt. MAXWELL (BuShips) Col. ROPER (ManhatDist)
Cdr. REE (BuShips) Col. FIELDS (ManhatDist)
Cdr. HOFFMAN (BuShips ) Col. COONEY (RadSafe)
WesCoRep.) Capt.LYON (BuMed)
Cdr. LANGER (BuShips) Dr. HAMILTON (Univ.Calif)
Cdr. HAWES (BuShips)
- Admiral Solberg opened the conference by stating that radiological decontamination of Bikini non-target ships is now proceeding satisfactorily on the West Coast. About 90% of the vessels are expected to have final radiological clearance by 20 December, in the early stages many of the Commanding Officers were very much concerned over the suspected radioactivity hazards on the ships. They were also somewhat reluctant about prosecuting the decontamination vigorously. However, they have finally been convinced of the necessity for constant application until final clearance has been obtained. A new directive has now been issued by BuShips and BuMed covering the complete field of radiological decontamination. This directive had been read and approved by Dr. HAMILTON and Colonel COONEY. The new directive should stand as written for some time with the possible exception of a change in the hydrochloric acid solution used.
- Dr. HAMILTON reported that a new solution for decontaminating salt water systems is now under investigation. The new solution contains a mixture of hydrochloric and citric acids and under laboratory conditions removes 98-99% of the radioactive products. Dr. HAMILTON pointed out that this solution may be very important at some future date when very much larger quantities of fission products might require handling and the difference of a few percent would be critical. He did emphasize, however, that the problem of removing radioactive materials from the non-target ships at the present time is very much more difficult than would have been the case if they had been treated within a week or two after contamination. This is true because of the deposit of layers of other material over the original radioactive matter and also the diffusion of the fission products which has taken place over the period of time since the exposure. Dr. HAMILTON also stated that he is fully aware of the fact that prosecution of decontamination processes in the laboratory is a much more simple matter than on board ships. For this reason he is very happy about the controlled decontamination which is being carried out on the ACHOMAWI and LST 881.
- Admiral SOLBERG stated that he understood that the new solution of hydrochloric and citric acids was being tried on the CEBU and would like more information as to the details of the new mixture. He was advised that the solution acts more rapidly than one normal hydrochloric acid with a vigorous evolution of gas. It is actually one-half normal hydrochloric acid solution with an original Ph of a little less than that of one-half normal hydrochloric acid, perhaps 3 or 4. The first vapor given off is carbon dioxide resulting from reaction with calcareous materials. It is easier to handle and less dangerous than one normal hydrochloric acid solution. It is non-poisonous at all times and is not injurious to the human body with the exception, of the eyes. It reacts on steel very slowly, but the only location in pipe systems where the effect might be noticeable at all would be on valve seats where perhaps a few ten-thousandths of an inch might be lost in the treatment. Admiral SOLBERG believed that one normal hydrochloric acid might still be quicker in removing heavy scale deposits as in evaporators.
Dr. HAMILTON stated that the new mixture is better on general scale
attack than is one normal hydrochloric acid although the new solution has not yet been tried on evaporator scale which is very dense and more difficult to attack than marine growth in pipes. Dr. HAMILTON agreed that the combination hydrochloric and citric acids should be tried on evaporators. Dr. HAMILTON reported also that a laboratory counter about one hundred times more sensitive than the X-263 has been set up for making a careful determination of the extent to which the radioactive materials can be removed with the new solution. Admiral SOLBERG voiced the opinion that perhaps the best treatment to settle on finally, might be use of one normal hydrochloric acid on evaporators to remove the heavy scale followed by a treatment with the new mixture to remove the remnant. He suggested trying this treatment on some ships with heavily scaled evaporators.
- Admiral SOLBERG suggested that some fission products be left in a few salt water systems of selected active ships. Under this arrangement these ships would be retained in an operational clearance status over a considerable period for the purposes of study by sampling every six months to determine whether the erosive effects of the water circulation will act to remove the fission products. Dr. HAMILTON suggested, along this line, that samples of pipe sections be taken now on these ships and photofilm studies of the samples be made. The process should be repeated in six months by removing a section of pipe adjacent to the original sample for comparison and examination of the removal, diffusion or covering up of the radioactive materials. Captain LYON advised that this had in effect been started on the BURLESON by running alpha counts on scale, but the samples were too weak showing no alpha in twenty-four hours but definitely showing the presence of plutonium on a 30 day test.
- Admiral SOLBERG mentioned the desirability of investigating wood samples and painted surfaces, also, to study the behavior of fission products present and the possibility of migration of the material over a long period of time. Dr. LYON stated that a man is available in the Public Health Service to make the necessary examination of samples. Dr. HAMILTON stated that he is familiar with the work of this man who has not had experience in making radioautographs. It was suggested that the man be sent to University of California for a short period of training in the laboratory and then returned
to his own laboratory to carry on the necessary work which will require only part time. It is highly desirable that the work not be done at University of California because of the crowded conditions there. The man in question is of Turkish origin, but is an American citizen, and has great abilities. Col. FIELDS stated that he could be granted necessary clearance for the work at Berkeley.
- Admiral SOLBERG believes that immediate and careful consideration should be given to the decontamination program to insure that valuable information and opportunities for research will not be destroyed in the haste to obtain radiological clearance on all non-target ships as soon as possible. He stated that studies of salt water systems can still be made on some of the target ships which had diesel generators operating and used portions of firemains in a highly contaminated part of the lagoon subsequent to Test BAKER. Examples of such ships are PENSACOLA, SALT LAKE CITY, NEW YORK and NEVADE. He also cited the fact that entire sections of contaminated piping systems could be removed from these targets and reinstalled in active ships for experimental purposes. The PRINZ EUGEN and NEW YORK will also offer excellent samples of contaminated wood decks, while these and other target ships will yield good painted surfaces for migration studies.
- Another problem brought forth by Admiral SOLBERG was that of the four submarines, PARCHE, SEARAVEN, DENTUDA and TUNA now at Mare Island and only negligibly damaged. There is a possibility of a saving in funds if these vessels can be put in satisfactory use for reserve training cruises. If this action were taken, these vessels also would present excellent cases for study. The recent program of decontamination has been based on clearing non-target ships as soon as possible and waiting for the return of targets before initiating extensive decontamination research. However, the four submarines mentioned provide an immediate field for such studies. A wash of the new hydrochloric-citric acid solution might be tried. All known means of decontaminating these vessels were tried at Bikini, but they still remained above operational clearance limits as now established. Upon arrival at Mare Island the readings were in general within tolerance levels on the topside but with a few high spots. All had been painted over. Dr. HAMILTON noted that when painted over, the plutonium does not present a hazard. He also stated that the present gamma radiation is from
[Page 106] [mare Island]
zirconium and columbium and even if as high as 5 R/day will be safe within four months. It was agreed that the four submarines may be of some value in the investigation fields, but not nearly so much as active ships which still have parts contaminated.
- The question of treatment of work decks was raised. Dr. HAMILTON stated that there is no known method of handling radiological contamination of wood decking other that removing and disposing of it. He did reiterate, however, that investigation of the effect of various solutions on the contaminated wood should be made and the migration of the fission products under treatment should be studied by use of radioautographs. Furthermore, he believed that an attempt should be made to determine whether the contamination before treatment is located only on the surface or permeates the material. Admiral SOLBERG stated that if the radioactive materials are only on the surface treatment with a liquid will probably carry it further in. Commander HOFFMAN reported that experience at Bikini in planning contaminated wood decks showed that the activity extended through a layer at least 3/16 “thick. Dr. HAMILTON advised that a few samples of wood deck be obtained and checked to study this matter. It was reported that some samples of wood deck as well as steel plate specimen are now at Hunters Point, but no investigation work has progressed on these, as yet. There are also some samples at Los Almos on which very little has been accomplished according to Col. COONEY. Admiral SOLBERG reported that he has received no reports on the Los Alamos samples.
- Dr. HAMILTON reported that Drs. MORTON and MORRISON have been of invaluable assistance at Berkeley and have been carrying the brunt of the Navy’s radiological investigation work’at the University of California. Dr. HAMILTON also expressed the desire to have two other naval officers replace MORTON and MORRISON at the University when the latter shift to the Hunters Point Laboratory. Admiral SOLBERG said that he wanted to relieve the University of California of as much of the actual work as possible while still obtaining their advice in the operation of the Hunters Point Laboratory. He definitely does not want to lose the relations with the Crocker Laboratory just because the Navy is setting up its own laboratory. Commander HOFFMAN reported that several of the monitors are very much interested in radiological investigation work and two are actually working in the Hunters Point Laboratory.
When the clearing of the non-target ships has been completed it is possible that these two monitors might go to Berkeley. In response to a question from Captain LYON, Admiral SOLBERG reported that BuShips expects to train radiochemists for its phase of the work just as BuMed is training them for biochemical research. Dr. HAMILTON considered that BuShips will have need for a greater number of trained radiochemists than BuMed will. He further mentioned that the physical part of the work was simple and that the chemical was by far the most important. Captain LYON advised that Drs. MORTON and MORRISON will be utilized in the future as biochemical radiochemists in assessing health hazards and establishing radiological tolerances and limits. Dr. HAMILTON believes that at least one of the replacements for Drs. MORTON and MORRISON should be a BuShips officer. Captain MAXWELL advised that a Lt. PRESTON, who has a Ph.D., in chemistry from the University of California, and is now engaged in petroleum research in BuShips, will be available for radiological work on 2 December and can go to Berkeley if desired.
- Col. COONEY advised that Col. NICHOLS would arrive at the conference about 1000 and desired to discuss the security aspect of radiological decontamination. Admiral SOLBERG said that preliminary discussion should be undertaken prior to Col. NICHOLS arrival to save time. The Admiral presented as the most pressing question of security that relating to dry-docking and the disposal of marine growth and sand-blasting sand from contaminated ships. Dr. HAMILTON stated that the quantities of sand involved were so immense and the amounts of plutonium so small from any ship that the dilution of the radioactive material was sufficient to render it impossible for anyone to obtain any information from the sand. He said, the sand could safely be used for paving or construction. He was advised, however, that the sand is not suitable for construction and is used generally only for fill. Admiral SOLBERG pointed out that Col. WARREN had been worried about dumping the sand at high places because of the possibility of contaminating water supplies. Dr. HAMILTON refuted this point by inviting attention to the fact that all water soluble materials would have left the ship’s bottom prior to docking, hence no ^concern as to disposition of the sand should arise provided ship’s bottoms were no more than 3 to 4 times as active as the ROCKBRIDGE.
[This might explain the fallout on TI in the little girls jewelry box]
The recommendation was, therefore, that no special disposal of sand from, no non-target vessels was necessary. Marine growth on “vessels” not radiologically cleared should be disposed of by sinking at sea, however, since 30 to 40 lbs. of dry algae would offer good possibilities for radiochemical analysis Target vessels with 4-20 R/day would give rise to concern over sand disposal. Admiral SOLBERG advised, however, that it was at present not contemplated that any cleaning of target ship bottoms would be undertaken except for scraping of small areas to conduct structural examinations. He further stated that the present plan is not to sell targets for scrap and the probable final disposition will be sinking. No problem of disposal of material in docks will arise because the targets will remain for only short periods, perhaps three or four days, during which practically no marine growth will fall off. No docking hazard is likely to arise since the target ship bottoms are not particularly radioactive. The SKATE, when docked in Mare Island, had readings varying from .05 to .3 R/ day. The HUGHES was docked at Bikini with no danger, and particular attention was given to the condition of the bottom to determine what hazard might be expected from this source. Admiral SOLBERG attributes the low concentration of fission products on the underwater bodies to the plastic paint which apparently does not absorb the active products. Further, most of the targets will have been lying in Kwajalein for a considerable period, during which much of the activity will have been rejected by exfoliation, and much more will be washed off during the long return trip. Hence it is not likely that any problem will arise as a result of radioactivity on target ship bottoms.
- With respect to disposal of acid solutions used in cleaning salt water systems, Dr. HAMILTON believes that quantities up to one curie of fission products can be dumped into a harbor in a six months period without hazard. In most cases the material will settle into the mud where it will do no harm and the dilution factor in a large harbor such as at Puget Sound or San Francisco is so great that no concern need be experienced. Another reason for not being alarmed about discharging the used acid solution into harbors is the fact that a large number of the non-target vessels will not be accomplishing the operation in the same locality simultaneously. Dr. HAMILTON was certain that the dumping
of used acid solutions from an average of not more than one vessel per week in one geographical location would be perfectly safe. Capt. LYON advised the conference that Col. WARREN had been of the opinion that not more than five vessels should be permitted to dump acid solutions used in removing radioactivity concurrently in one harbor.
[THE COVER UP]
Dr. HAMILTON advised that consideration be given to the public relations angle in not permitting the information to leak out regarding the local disposal of acid and sand containing some fission products in spite of the fact that the quantities involved entail absolutely no health or security hazard. Adm. SOLBERG stated that in view of the progress already made in the decontamination program the Navy could probably continue to dump the acid solutions at sea but would benefit greatly by elimination of the need for special disposal of the sand. Dr. HAMILTON agreed but advised that if the sand should leave Navy property, the persons receiving it not be advised of the source because of their likely failure to understand that no hazard from radioactive materials existed.
- Dr. HAMILTON stated that the principal security problem lies in disposal of Bikini ships for scrap. He definitely considered the new directive absolutely safe with respect to limits for radiological clearance. He went on to explain that the plutonium in a ship, which may be several hundred micrograms, is mixed intimately with so tremendous a gross quantity of rust and scale that the cyclotron would be a much more efficient means of obtaining the element. As to determining the efficiency of the bomb from the fission products present, Dr. HAMILTON believes these ships would be very poor because of the change in characteristics of the deposits as a result of the cleaning solutions used on interior systems, and the erosion and exfoliation on the underwater bodies with time of immersion. In fact, he said, the desert sands at Alamogordo provide a much better source for bomb efficiency analysis.
- At 1010, Col. NICHOLS and Col. ROPER joined the conference. Admiral SOLBERG summarized for the new conferees the conclusions on security which had thus far been reached in the conference as follows;
(a) There is considered to be no problem of security requiring disposal of sand used in sand-blasting non-target vessels. The marine growth removed should, however, be disposed of by sinking at sea.
(b) It is also considered unnecessary to make special disposition of solutions used for cleaning ships’ salt water systems, but for the present the existing practice of dumping at sea will be followed.
Admiral SOLBERG went on to explain that it is highly desirable, if possible, to avoid special dry-docking of non-target vessels before disposal. Since the period elapsing between the present time and the actual disposal of such vessels by the Maritime Commission will be more than a year, no hazard from radioactive materials is deemed to exist.
- Dr. HAMILTON explained that two principal considerations had governed his conclusions in security matters.
(a) Source of plutonium. After decontamination to established limits, perhaps 100 micrograms of plutonium remain in hundreds of thousands of feet of pipe mixed with thousands of pounds of scale, rust, and the like. To separate out the plutonium from this gross material would be a tremendous job. On the other hand, a small cyclotron could easily produce a milligram of plutonium in a year. Consequently, the ships are considered to represent no security hazard from the source of plutonium standpoint.
(b) Bomb efficiency. The amount of fission products obtained from kilograms of contaminated material on a ship would be very small and most unreliable because of selective leaching and solution selection on cleaning of systems. The best source of samples of products would be underwater body plates, but even in that case with as much as tens of kilograms of scrapings, there is no probability of obtaining a reliable estimate of efficiency. Dr. HAMILTON was positive of the uselessness of samples of material from salt water systems which had been acid cleaned, but said the underwater hull was not necessarily subject to the same disproportionation.
Admiral SOLBERG, however, believes that the exfoliation on the underwater body upsets the proportions of materials present. Dr. HAMILTON suggested that some hull samples be tested at University of California to check this point. If the materials reveal the possibility of a risk involved, the matter will be reviewed. If not, as anticipated, and it is as difficult as believed to run an essay, the entire matter can be dismissed
as no security concern. Meanwhile, Col. NICHOLS agreed that special docking for non-target decontamination will be dispensed with until and unless Dr. HAMILTON’S investigations indicate the contrary to be necessary. With respect to target vessels the present plan is not to sell or scrap, hence they do not enter this problem at the moment. Captain MAXWELL pointed out that several ex-targets are now at Norfolk and with the cancellation of the special tests for which they were ear marked are now preparing for routine disposal. Captain LYON pointed out, however, that these particular vessels are to be excluded from all target vessel considerations and are to be regarded as non-targets from the standpoint of decontamination.
- Admiral SOLBERG stated his desire to have bomb efficiency assays conducted on samples from several locations on returning target vessels. Dr. HAMILTON believes six representative samples will be sufficient to provide the necessary information. He also believes that the plate samples now available from target vessels may be satisfactory for the purpose. Col. ROPER stated that perhaps the Maritime Commission should be advised to hold back any Bikini vessels turned over for disposal until Dr. HAMILTON’S assays are completed. Dr. HAMILTON expressed the belief, however, that any special considerations requested would arouse undue suspicion as to the safety of handling the ships.
Col. NICHOLS rendered the decision that the program of disposal will proceed normally as already decided, keeping a record of which vessels having been exposed are turned over for disposal, and the Navy will step in when and if it becomes necessary as a result of the bomb efficiency assay.
- Dr. HAMILTON advised that there need be no concern over melting down scrap from the non-target ships. The only point to be considered in this respect is the possibility of using this means to determine the bomb efficiency. To do this would require separating out one of the fission products which is an extremely difficult operation. At present the only products which still lend themselves to separation are the long life cerium or europium. Col. NICHOLS decided that in this case, also, the only special precaution would be to keep a record of which ships are involved until Dr. HAMILTON completes his bomb efficiency investigations.
- Dr. HAMILTON raised the question of the possibility of unauthorized persons entering Bikini Lagoon and obtaining samples for efficiency analysis. Admiral SOLBERG advised that no one is on the islands, the lagoon is a closed port and periodic flights are made from Kwajalein to insure that unauthorized entries are not made. It was admitted that there would be considerable difficulty in obtaining samples but some of the sand in the lagoon is still at 50 R/day. Dr. HAMILTON-stated that only a small sample would be required-and could be located by means of any ordinary Geiger counter. He also noted as significant the fact that several foreign nations had ordered counters from this country. The possibility of disproportionation of fission products by plant and animal life present was raised. Dr. HAMILTON responded that there might be some but it would be insignificant. He suggested that to verify this statement and to check the hazard to security represented by Bikini, some samples of sand be obtained for assay if Col. NICHOLS desires. Col. NICHOLS stated he would like to have this done if it could be accomplished without undue difficulty. Admiral SOLBERG recommended that arrangements be made to have Captain DRAEGER contact Atoll Commander Kwajalein with respect to obtaining the necessary sand samples from Bikini.
[The COVER UP]
Col. NICHOLS raised the question as to whether there was any possibility of successful suits against the government by agencies receiving the non-target ships for scrap. Dr. HAMILTON, in response, stated that no such possibility existed because of the small quantities of fission products which would be present in the scrap. He did say that there would probably be many suits by cranks, but none of these would be valid, and it would be foolish to try to work towards avoiding them. Col. FIELDS said that Gen. GROVES is very much afraid of claims being instituted by men who participated in the Bikini tests. Dr. HAMILTON said in response to this possibility, that there is much authoritative information available to prove that plutonium in the form contained in the bomb is not absorbed by the digestive tract or through the lungs unless quantities as large as a gram are being dealt with. He also believes that the health hazards from long life fission products are far greater than from plutonium.
[Dr Hamilton at the same time the Navy was working on the ships at the Shipyard he was conducting plutonium injection tests on unsuspecting patients in San Francisco detailed the US congressional Hearings “Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments” in 1994.” This is the guy who set the safe level of radiation for all NAVY Experiments for the next 37 years. Dr Hamilton thought that a radiation was no danger, here is a photograph of him drinking a solution of radioactive sodium in order to prove it was not dangerous. He died of cancer less than 10 years later. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Gilbert_Hamilton#/media/File:Joseph-Hamilton-drinking-radiosodium.jpg ]
These fission products are strontium and cerium which are very rare, however. Furthermore, plutonium in the form being dealt with does not go to the skeleton which is the principal danger of the strontium and cesium. The
amounts of dangerous fission products to be found in the scrap would be on the order of 50 mille curies, in tons of slag where it would be found. This quantity is on the order of the amounts of radium found in ordinary rock. Therefore, Dr. HAMILTON is willing to state positively that there is absolutely no possibility of physical injury from radioactive materials in the amounts which are being worked with on the non-targets under present conditions.
- Dr. HAMILTON was very anxious to determine whether the present arrangements with University of California are satisfactory. Admiral SOLBERG stated that the Navy is highly pleased with developments and is completely open to suggestions and changes recommended by Dr. HAMILTON. Dr. HAMILTON said that he is interested in giving all the service he possibly can, and that all arrangements are completely satisfactory to him provided the Navy is getting all the information it needs.
- Captain LYON raised the question of security of information in connection with the transfer of safety and decontamination functions to the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery and the Bureau of Ships. Captain LYON advised that a joint conference had considered that a section working directly under each Bureau Chief, preferably a small group with no intermediaries, should be charged with handling high security matters relating to radiological work. Col. NICHOLS advised that this matter will become a responsibility of the military liaison committee of the Atomic Energy Commission upon dissolution of the Manhattan District. Admiral SOLBERG advised that the Bureau of Ships is perfectly satisfied to permit his little group do whatever is required provided there is no undue interference with allocation of funds or operational schedules. Captain MAXWELL raised the question of clearance of civilian personnel who will be working in the new Radiological Laboratory. Col. FIELDS said that these people, if citizens, can be cleared very easily by Manhattan. Col. NICHOLS said he thought the clearance procedure should be maintained by the Atomic Energy Commission after Manhattan dissolves. Dr. HAMILTON said that if he can be advised of what personnel will be connected with the Hunters Point Laboratory and what their clearance status is, it will simplify his problem in determining how much information should be made available to each individual and he will be happy to supply it.
- Admiral SOLBERG advised that when the new laboratory gets into operation many security problems will be likely to arise in connection with personnel obtaining information on past procedures and reports of work accomplished. This information will be essential to avoid repetition and useless work. Commander HOFFMAN is very desirous of obtaining a copy of the Manhattan (University of Chicago) Handbook and Dr. SEABORG’s lecture notes on nuclear chemistry to assist in establishing the laboratory. Dr. HAMILTON said that most of the Hunters Point problems will involve plutonium and fission product chemistry.
If the personnel are cleared, Dr. HAMILTON will make the information available to them in the form of selected reports. Commander HAWES reminded Dr. HAMILTON that he had agreed to set up a list of the reports of this type which can be made available. Dr. HAMILTON said that the handbook would not be of much value in setting up the laboratory although portions of it might be useful in a general way. In any case,
Dr. HAMILTON will provide information to Commander HOFFMAN as to what equipment is required.
- Dr. HAMILTON advised that personnel were still very scarce in radiological work at Berkeley. He has recently been able to hire only one man on a part-time basis. The Manhattan District is having great difficulty maintaining sufficient personnel, also. Dr. HAMILTON has no promising students available at the moment for the new work, but expects to attempt to obtain additional graduate students for training. The new Hunters Point Laboratory is considered to be a very attractive spot for a young man who will be interested in a permanent, civil service job, and should bring forth some promising candidates. Dr. HAMILTON will confer with Commander HOFFMAN further in this matter at San Francisco.
- At 1110 all Army personnel left the conference in order to take care of immediate business.
- The remaining conferees continued the discussion of the security problem somewhat further. On the basis of the previous findings of the conference it was decided that considerable effort and expense could be saved by dumping into harbors rather than carrying to sea the acid solutions used in decontaminating salt water systems. It was therefore
decided to permit activities to dump the acid into harbors slowly and preferably on an ebbtide. Dr. HAMILTON was requested to advise Col. NICHOLS of this decision.
- With respect to provision of samples for the investigations to be conducted by Dr. HAMILTON on the possibility of determining therefrom the bomb efficiency, it was decided that Commander HOFFMAN would arrange to obtain the samples from docked ships on the West Coast. About five pounds of the sample materials are to be obtained from locations on the underwater bodies which monitor about .02 R/day (the present average clearance limit). The samples are to be marked in detail as to the locations from which they were taken and the radiation readings at those locations.
- It was also decided that the use of the new combination hydrochloric and citric acids solution would be limited to the San Francisco area at the outset. Later Commander HOFFMAN may extend the use to Terminal Island and San Diego if he deems it appropriate and so desires.
- The conference adjourned at 1145.
/s/ J. J. Fee
All present at conference.
OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3. 1946 UNCLASSIFIED DNA ltr, 21 Apr 1982 DIRECTOR OF SHIP MATERIAL TECHNICAL INSPECTION REPORT