1957 Atomic Energy Safe Radiation Levels are now nuclear accidents today

TITLE 10 – ATOMIC ENERGY
Chapter I – Atomic Energy Commission
PART 20 – STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION
Federal Register Tuesday, January 29, 1957 pp 549-554

Editor’s Note: The Atomic Energy Commission produced a set of safe levels of radiation exposure for nuclear workers that today are nuclear accidents, for instance the exposure for hands and forearms feet and neck is 1500 mrems per week in 1957. Today the exposure of citizens for a year is 100 mrems, 10 for children! The USNRDL’s standard established in 1946 by Dr. Joseph Hamilton of the University of California Berkeley which was in use until 1969 was 100 mrems per hour.

These levels are very important for when an agency claims it has cleaned up an area, you have to ask what were the standards used to clean up that area and when was it cleaned?

So for example in this document it discusses the safe levels of radiation drained into sewers. For instance we know that the GE Nuclear Energy disposed of nuclear waste by pouring it down the drain into the sewer system of San Jose using the 1957 standards.

The 1957 Standards for Protection Against Radiation:

TITLE 10 – ATOMIC ENERGY
Chapter I – Atomic Energy Commission
PART 20 – STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION

In July 1955 the Commission issued for public comment a proposed regulation to establish general standards for protection of licensees, their employees, and the public against radiation hazards arising out of the possession or use of special nuclear, source, or byproduct material under license issued by AEC. In preparing the effective regulation published below, the Commission has had the benefit of numerous comments and suggestions received since publication of the proposed rules. A number of changes suggested by those comments have been incorporated in the following regulation.

The regulation establishes standards which must be followed in handling radioactive materials which are subject to the licensing authority of the Commission and provides procedures whereby deviations from such standards may be authorized on a case-to-case basis. The regulation prescribes limits which govern exposure of personnel to radiation and concentrations of radioactive material, concentrations of radioactive material which may be discharged into air and water, and disposal of radioactive wastes. It also establishes certain precautionary procedures and administrative controls.

The standards established by this regulation will be found to agree substantially with those published by the National Committee on Radiation Protection in N. B. S. Handbook 52 “Maximum Permissible Amounts of Radioisotopes in the Human Body and Maximum Permissible Concentrations in Air and Water,” and N. B. S. Handbook 59 “Permissible Dose from External Sources of Ionizing Radiation.” The National Committee on Radiation Protection has under review recommendations to limit cumulative exposures over periods of years. The Commission is giving consideration to appropriate amendments to its regulations to deal with this cumulative exposure problem.

Limitations upon levels of radiation and concentrations of radioactive material in areas affected by but not controlled by the licensee are contained principally in § 20.102 (“Permissible Levels of Radiation in Unrestricted Areas”), § 20.103 (“Concentrations in Effluents to Unrestricted Areas”), and the sections on waste disposal. The sections are designed to assure that individuals in “unrestricted areas” do not receive exposure in excess of 10 percent of the limits established for persons exposed in restricted areas. For this purpose, the sections limit levels of radiation and concentrations of radioactive material which may be created in unrestricted areas by licensees, without special authorization from the AEC, to extremely low levels. These levels are believed to be sufficiently low to assure that there is no reasonable probability of individuals in unrestricted areas receiving exposures in excess of 10 percent of the permissible levels for restricted areas. Procedures are incorporated in those sections, however, under which the Commission may authorize licensees in specific cases to create higher levels in unrestricted areas where the circumstances of the particular case are such as to provide reasonable assurance that individuals in the unrestricted areas will not receive exposures in excess of 10 percent of the limitation established for restricted areas.

It is believed that the standards Incorporated in these regulations provide, in accordance with present knowledge, a very substantial margin of safety for exposed individuals. It is believed also that the standards are practical from the standpoint of licensees. It should be emphasized that the standards are subject to change with the development of new knowledge, with significant increase in the average exposure of the whole population to radiation, and with further experience in the administration of the Commission’s regulatory program.

Pursuant to the Administrative Procedures Act, Public Law 404, 79th Congress, 2d Session, the following rules are published as a document subject to codification to be effective 30 days after publication in the FEDERAL REGISTER.

GENERAL PROVISIONS
Sec.
20.1 Purpose.
20.2 Scope.
20.3 Definitions.
20.4 Units of radiation dose.
20.5 Units of radioactivity.
20.6 Interpretations.
20.7 Communications.

PERMISSIBLE DOSES, LEVELS, AND CONCENTRATIONS
20.101 Exposure of individuals in restricted areas.
20.102 Permissible levels of radiation in unrestricted areas.
20.103 Concentrations in effluents to unrestricted areas.
20.101 Medical diagnosis, therapy, and research.
20.105 Measures to be taken after excessive exposures.

PRECAUTIONARY PROCEDURES
20.201 Surveys.
20.202 Personnel monitoring.
20.203 Caution signs, labels, and signals.
20.204 Exceptions from posting requirements.
20.205 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.
20.206 Instruction of personnel,
20.207 Storage of licensed material.

WASTE DISPOSAL
20.301 General requirement.
20,302 Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures.
20.303 Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage systems.
20.304 Disposal by burial in soil.

RECORDS, REPORTS, AND NOTIFICATION
20.401 Records of surveys, radiation monitoring, and disposal.
20.402 Reports of theft or loss of licensed material.

EXCEPTIONS AND ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS
20.501 Applications for exemptions.
20.502 Additional requirements.

ENFORCEMTENT
20.601 Violations.

AUTHORITY: §§ 20.1 to 20.601 issued under sec. 161 (b), 68 Stat 948, 42 U. S. C. 2201.

GENERAL PROVISIONS
§ 20.1 Purpose.

(a) The regulations in this part establish standards for protection against radiation hazards arising out of activities under licenses issued by the Atomic Energy Commission and are issued pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (68 Stat. 919).

(b) The use of radioactive material or other sources of radiation not licensed by the Commission is not subject to the regulations in this part. However, it is the purpose of the regulations in this part to control the possession, use, and transfer of licensed material by any licensee in such a manner that exposure to such material and to radiation from such material, when added to exposures to unlicensed radioactive material and to other unlicensed sources of radiation in the possession of the licensee, and to radiation therefrom, does not exceed the standards of radiation protection prescribed in the regulations in this part.

§ 20.2 Scope. The regulations in this part apply to all persons who receive, possess, use or transfer byproduct material, source material, or special nuclear material under a general or specific license issued by the Commission pursuant to the regulations in Part 30, 40, or 70 of this chapter.

§ 20.3 Definitions. (a) As used in this part:

  • (1) “Act” means the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (68 Stat. 919) including any amendments thereto;
  • (2) “Airborne radioactive material” means any radioactive material dispersed in the air in the form of dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases;
  • (3) “Byproduct material” means any radioactive material (except special nuclear material) yielded in or made radioactive by exposure to the radiation incident to the process of producing or utilizing special nuclear material;
  • (4) “Commission” means the Atomic Energy Commission or its duly authorized representatives;
  • (5) “Government agency” means any executive department, commission, independent establishment, corporation, wholly or partly owned by the United States of America which is an instrumentality of the United States, or any board, bureau, division, service, office, officer, authority, administration, or other establishment in the executive branch of the Government;
  • (6) “Individual” means any human being;
  • (7) “Licensed material” means source material, special nuclear material, or byproduct material received, possessed, used, or transferred under a general or specific license issued by the Commission pursuant to the regulations in this chapter;
  • (8) “License” means a license issued under the regulations in Part 30, 40, or 70 of this chapter. “Licensee” means the holder of such license;
  • (9) “Person” means
    • (i) any individual, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, public or private institution, group, Government agency other than the Commission, any State, any foreign government or nation or any political subdivision of any such government or nations, or other entity; and
    • (ii) any legal successor, representative, agent, or agency of the foregoing;
  • (10) “Radiation” means any or all of the following: alpha rays, beta rays, gamma rays, X-rays, neutrons, high-speed electrons, high-speed protons, and other atomic particles; but not sound or radio waves, or visible, infrared, or ultraviolet light;
  • (11) “Radioactive material includes any such material whether or not subject to licensing control by the Commission;
  • (12) “Restricted area” means any area access to which is controlled by the licensee. “Restricted area” shall not include any areas used as residential quarters, although a separate room or rooms in a residential building may be set apart as a restricted area;
  • (13) “Source material” means any material except special nuclear material, which contains by weight one-twentieth of one percent (0.05 percent or more of
    • (i) uranium,
    • (ii) thorium, or
    • (iii) any combination thereof;
  • (14) “Special nuclear material” means (i) plutonium, uranium233, uranium enriched in the isotope 233 or in the isotope 235, and any other material which the Commission, pursuant to the provisions of section 51 of the act, determines to be special nuclear material, but does not include source material; or (ii) any material artificially enriched by any of the foregoing but does not include source material;
  • (15) “Unrestricted area” means any area entry into which is not controlled by the licensee, and any area used for residential quarters.
    • (b) Definitions of certain other words and phrases as used in this part are set forth in other sections, including:
      • (1) “Airborne radioactivity area” defined in § 20.203;
      • (2) “Radiation area” and “high radiation area” defined in § 20.202;
      • (3) “Personnel monitoring equipment” defined in § 20.202;
      • (4) “Survey” defined in § 20.201;
      • (5) Units of measurement of dose (rad, rem) defined in § 20.4;
      • (6) Units of measurement of radioactivity defined in § 20.5.

§ 20.4 Units of radiation dose.

(a) “Dose,” as used in this part, is the quantity of radiation absorbed, per unit of mass, by the body or by any portion of the body. When the regulations in this part specify s, dose during a period of time, the dose means the total quantity of radiation absorbed, per unit of mass, by the body or by -any portion- of the body during such period of time. Several different units of dose are in current use. Definitions of units as used in this part are set forth in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.

(b) The rad, as used in this part, is a measure of the dose of any ionizing radiation to body tissues in terms of the energy absorbed per unit mass of the tissue. One rad is the dose corresponding to the absorption of 100 ergs per gram of tissue. (One millirad (mrad) = 0.001 rad.)

(c) The rem, as used in this part, is a measure of the dose of any ionizing radiation to body tissue in terms of its estimated biological effect relative to a dose of one roentgen (r) of X-rays. (One millirem (mrem) = 0.001 rem.) The relation of the rem to other dose units depends upon the biological effect under consideration and upon the conditions of irradiation. For the purpose of the regulations in this part, any of the following is considered to be equivalent to a dose of one rem:

  • (1) A dose of 1 r due to X- or gamma radiation;
  • (2) A dose of 1 rad due to X-, gamma, or beta radiation;
  • (3) A dose of 0.1 rad due to neutrons or high energy protons;
  • (4) A dose of 0.05 rad due to particles heavier than protons and with sufficient energy to reach the lens of the eye;

If it is more convenient to measure the neutron flux, or equivalent, than to determine the neutron dose in rads, as provided in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph, one rem of neutron radiation may, for purposes of the regulations in this part, be assumed to be equivalent to 14 million neutrons per square centimeter incident upon the body; or, if there exists sufficient information to estimate with reasonable accuracy the, approximate distribution in energy of the neutrons, the incident number of neutrons per square centimeter equivalent to one rem may be estimated from the following table:

[Table must be inserted as image µ ]

§ 20.5 Units of radioactivity. (a) Radioactivity is commonly, and for purposes of the regulations in this part shall be, measured in terms of disintegrations per unit time or in curies. One curie (c) = 3.7 X 10 10 disintegrations per second (dps) = 2.2 X 10 12 disintegrations per minute (dpm). A commonly used submultiple of the curie is the micro curie (µc). One µc = 0.000001 c = 3.7 X 10 4 dps = 2.2 X 10′ dpm.

NOTE: Many radioisotopes disintegrate into isotopes which are also radioactive. In expressing maximum permissible concentrations in air and water of these materials, as in Appendix B of this part, the activity stated is that of the parent isotope. In some cases, the fact that daughter products may contribute to the total dose has been taken into account in the determination of the maxi mum permissible concentration of the parent isotopes. In the tables of Appendix B of this part this is indicated by writing

Ba140 + La140, Sr90 + Y90, RN222 + dr, Ra220 + ½ dr

EXAMPLE. In Column 1, Table I, Appendix B the maximum permissible concentration of Ba140 in air for occupational use is 2+10-7 µc/ml. This is the maximum permissible concentration regardless of whether or not any of the La140 which may have resulted from the decay of the Ba140 is present or not. However, the value given for Ba140 is less than it would be if La140 were a stable isotope, not only because of the possibility of La140 in the air but principally because, if the Ba140 is inhaled, its radioactive decay in the body will result in the production of La140 in the body.

(b) Radon. Airborne radioactivity of radon and its decay products may be determined by measurement of the activity of one or more decay products on dust filtered from the air. For purposes of the regulations In this part, the limit prescribed here will be considered to be met if the measured radioactivity of one or more decay products (for example, RaC) does not exceed that which would result from the occurrence, at the time of sampling, of 1×10-7 microcuries, per milliliter of air, of Rn222 and each of its short-lived decay products, RaA, RaB, RaC, and RaC’. For this purpose, due allowance shall be made for changes in the radioactivity of the measured decay products from time of sampling through the period of measurement.

(c) Natural uranium and natural thorium. Natural uranium and natural thorium occur as mixtures of isotopes of the respective elements. In the case of uranium or of thorium, the number of microcuries- shall be determined by dividing the total rate, in dpm, of alpha emissions from the mixture-by 2.2×106 dpm per µc.

§ 20.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by any officer or employee of the Commission other than a written interpretation by the General Counsel will be recognized to be binding upon the Commission.

§ 20.7 Communications. All communications and reports concerning the regulations in this part, and applications filed under them, should be addressed to the
Atomic Energy Commission,
1901 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington 25, D. C.,
Attention: Division of Civilian Application.

PERMISSIBLE DOSES, LEVELS, AND CONCENTRATIONS

§ 20.101 Exposure of individuals in restricted areas (a) Exposure to radiation. (1) Except as-provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, no licensee shall possess, use, or transfer licensed material in such a manner as to cause any individual in a restricted area to receive in any period of seven consecutive days from radioactive material and other sources of radiation in the licensee’s possession a dose in excess of the limits specified in Appendix A of this part.

(2) A licensee may permit an individual in a restricted area to receive a dose in excess of the limits established in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph: Provided, Ci) That the dose during any period of 7 consecutive days does not exceed three times the limits specified in Appendix A of this part, and (ii), that the dose during any period of 13 consecutive weeks does not exceed 10 times the limits specified in Appendix A of this part.

(b) No licensee shall possess, use or transfer licensed material in such a manner as to-cause any individual in a restricted area to be exposed to airborne radioactive material possessed by the licensee in an average concentration in excess of-the limits specified in Appendix B, Table I, of this part. The limits given in Appendix B, Table I of this part, are based upon exposure to the concentrations specified for forty hours in any period of seven consecutive days, In any such period where the number of hours of exposure is less than forty, the limits specified in the table may be increased proportionately. In any such period, where the number of hours of exposure is greater than forty, the limits specified in the table shall be decreased proportionately.

(c) Exposure of minors. No licensee shall possess, use, or transfer licensed material in such a manner as to cause any individual under 18 years of age within a restricted area to receive in any period of seven consecutive days from radioactive material and other sources of radiation in the licensee’s possession a dose in excess of 10 percent of the limits specified in Appendix A of this part, or to be exposed to airborne radioactive material possessed by the licensee in a concentration in excess of the limits specified in Appendix B, Table II, of this part. For purposes of this paragraph, concentrations may be averaged over periods not greater than a week.

§ 20.102 Permissible levels of radiation in unrestricted areas. (a) There may be included in any application for a license or for amendment of a license proposed limits upon levels of radiation in unrestricted areas resulting from the applicant’s possession or use of radioactive material and other sources of radiation. Such applications should include information as to anticipated average radiation levels and anticipated occupancy times for each unrestricted area involved. The Commission will approve the proposed limits if the applicant demonstrates that the proposed limits are not likely to cause any individual to receive a dose in any period of seven consecutive days in excess of 10 percent of the limits specified in Appendix A of this part.

(b) Except as authorized by the Commission pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section, no licensee shall possess, use, or transfer licensed material in such a. manner as to create in any unrestricted area from radioactive material and other sources of radiation in his possession: (1) Radiation-levels which, if an individual were continuously present in the area, could result in his receiving a dose in excess of two millirems in any one hour, or (2) Radiation levels which, if an individual were continuously present in the area, could result in his receiving a dose in excess of 100 millirems in any seven consecutive days.

§ 20.103 Concentrations in effluents to unrestricted areas. (a) There may be included in any application for a license or for amendment of a license proposed limits upon concentrations of licensed and other radioactive material released into air or water in unrestricted areas as a result of the applicant’s proposed activities. Such applications should include information as to anticipated average concentrations and anticipated occupancy times for each unrestricted area involved. The Commission will approve the proposed limits if the applicant demonstrates that it is not likely that any individual will be exposed to concentrations in excess of the limits specified in Appendix B, Table II, of this part. For purposes of this paragraph, concentrations may be averaged over periods not greater than one year.

(b) Except as authorized by the Commission pursuant to § 20.302 or paragraph (a) of this section, no licensee shall possess, use, or transfer licensed material in such a manner as to release into air or water in any unrestricted area any concentration of radioactive material in excess of the limits specified in Appendix B, Table II of this part. For purposes of this paragraph, concentrations may be averaged over periods not greater than one year.

(c) For purposes of this section, determinations as to the concentration of radioactive material shall be made with respect to the point where such material leaves the restricted area. Where the radioactive material leaves the restricted area in a stack, tube, pipe, or similar conduit, the determination may be made with respect to the point where the material leaves such conduit.

(d) The provisions of this section do not apply to disposal of radioactive material into sanitary sewerage systems (see § 20.303).

§ 20.104 Medical diagnosis, therapy, and research. Nothing in the regulations in this part shall be interpreted as limiting the intentional exposure of patients to radiation for the purpose of medical diagnosis or medical therapy.

§ 20.105 Measures to be taken after excessive exposures. In the event that any individual in a restricted area receives a dose or is exposed to concentrations of radioactive material in excess of the permissible limits established in § 20.101, the licensee shall limit the weekly dose or exposure of the individual to 10 percent of such *permissible limit until such time as the average weekly dose or exposure to the individual for the period beginning with the week in which the excessive dose or exposure occurred is less than the permissible limit established in § 20.101.

PRECAUTIONARY PROCEDURES

§ 20.201 Surveys. (a) As used in the regulations in this part, “survey” means an evaluation of the radiation hazards incident to the production, use, release, disposal, or presence of radioactive materials or other sources of radiation under a specific set of conditions. When appropriate, such evaluation includes a physical survey of the location of materials and equipment, and measurements of levels of radiation or concentrations of radioactive material present.

(b) Each licensee shall make or cause to be made such surveys as may be neces- sary for him to comply with the regulations in this part.

§ 20.202 Personnel monitoring. (a) Each licensee shall supply appropriate personnel monitoring equipment to, and shall require the use of such equipment by:

(1) Each individual who enters a restricted area under such circumstances that he receives, or is likely to receive, a dose in excess of 25 percent of the limits specified in Appendix A of this part; (2) Each individual who enters a high radiation area.

(b) As used in this part, (1) “Personnel monitoring equipment” means devices designed to be worn or carried by an individual for the purpose of measuring the dose received (e. g., film badges, pocket chambers, pocket dosimeters, film rings, etc.); (2) “Radiation area” means any area, accessible to personnel, in which there exists radiation, originating in whole or in part within licensed material, at such levels that a major portion of the body could receive in any one hour a dose in excess of 5 millirem, or in any 5 consecutive days a dose in excess of 150 millirem;

(3) “High radiation area” means any area, accessible to personnel, in which there exists radiation originating in whole or in part within licensed material at such levels that a major portion of the body could receive in any one hour a dose in excess of 100 millirem.

§ 20.203 Caution signs, labels, and signals. (a) (1) Except as otherwise authorized by the Commission, symbols prescribed by this section shall use the conventional radiation caution colors (magenta or purple on yellow background). The symbol prescribed by this section is the conventional three-bladed design:

RADIATION SYMBOL

(2) In addition to the contents of signs and labels prescribed in this section, licensees may provide on or near such signs and labels any additional information which may be appropriate in aiding individuals to minimize exposure to radiation or to radioactive material.

(b) Radiation areas. Each radiation area shall be conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol and the words;

CAUTION
RADIATION AREA

(c) High radiation areas. (1) Each high radiation area shall be conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol and the words:

CAUTION
HIGH RADIATION AREA

(2) Each high radiation area shall be equipped with a control device which shall either cause the level of radiation to be reduced below that at which an individual might receive a dose of 100 millirem in one hour upon entry into the area or shall energize a conspicuous visible or audible alarm signal in such a manner that the individual entering and the licensee or a supervisor of the activity are made aware of the entry. In the case of a high radiation area established for a period of 30 days or less, such control device is not required.

(d) Airborne radioactivity areas. (1) As used in the regulations in this part, “airborne radioactivity area” means (i) any room, enclosure, or operating area in which airborne radioactive materials, composed wholly or partly of licensed material, exist in concentrations in excess of the amounts specified in Appendix B, Table I, Column 1 of this part; or (ii) any room, enclosure, or operating area in which airborne radioactive material composed Wholly or partly of licensed material exists in concentrations which, averaged over the number of hours in any week during which individuals are in the area, exceed 25 percent of the amounts specified in Appendix B, Table I, Column 1 of this part. (2) Each airborne radioactivity area shall be conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol and the words:

CAUTION
AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA

(e) Additional requirements. (1) Each area or room in which licensed material is used or stored and which contains any radioactive material (other than natural uranium or thorium) in an amount exceeding 10 times the quantity of such material specified in Appendix C of this part shall be conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol and the words:

CAUTION 1
RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL(S)

(2) Each area or room in which natural’ uranium or thorium is used or stored in an amount exceeding one- hundred times the quantity specified ii, Appendix C of this part shall be conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol and the words:

CAUTION
RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL(S)

(f) Containers. (1) Each container in which is transported, stored, or used a quantity of any licensed material (other than natural uranium or thorium) greater than the quantity of such material, specified in Appendix C of this part shall bear a durable, clearly visible label bearing the radiation caution symbol and the words:

CAUTION
RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

(2) Each container in which natural uranium or thorium is transported, stored, or used in a quantity greater than ten times the quantity specified in Appendix C of this part shall bear a durable, clearly visible label bearing the radiation caution symbol and the words:

CAUTION
RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraphs (1) and (2) a label shall not be required:
(i) If the concentration of the material in the container does not exceed that specified in Appendix B, Table I, Column 2 of this part, or, (ii) For laboratory containers, such as beakers, flasks, and test tubes, used transiently in laboratory ‘procedures, when the user is present.

(4) Where containers are used for storage, the labels required in this paragraph shall state also the quantities and kinds of radioactive materials in the containers and the date of measurement of the quantities.

§ 20.204 Exceptions from posting requirements. “Not withstanding the provisions of § 20.203,

(a) A room or area is not required to be posted with a caution sign because of the presence of a sealed source provided the radiation level twelve inches from the surface of the source container or housing does not exceed five millirem per hour.

(b) Rooms or other areas in hospitals are not required to be posted with caution signs because of the presence of patients containing byproduct material provided that there are personnel in attendance who shall take the precautions necessary to prevent the exposure-of any individual to radiation or radioactive material in excess of the limits established in the regulations in this part.

(c) Caution signs are not required to be posted at areas or rooms containing radioactive materials for periods of less than eight hours provided that (1) the materials are constantly attended during such periods by an individual who shall take the precautions necessary to prevent the exposure of any individual to radiation or radioactive materials in excess of the limits established in the regulations in this part and; (2) such area or room is subject to the licensee’s control.

§ 20.205 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with regulations of the Interstate Commerce Commission shall be exempt from the labeling and posting requirements of § 20.203 during shipment, provided that the inside containers are labeled in accordance with, the provisions of § 20.203 (f).

§ 20.206 Instruction of personnel. All individuals working in or frequenting any portion of a restricted area shall be informed of the occurrence of radioactive materials or of radiation in such portion, and shall be instructed in the hazards of excessive exposure to such materials or radiation and in precautions or procedures to minimize exposure.

§ 20.207 Storage of licensed material. Licensed materials stored In an unrestricted area shall be secured against un- authorized removal from the place of storage.

WASTE DISPOSAL

§ 20.301 General requirement. No licensee shall dispose of licensed material except: (1) By transfer to an authorized recipient as provided in the regulations in Part 30, 40, or 70 of this chapter, whichever may be applicable; or (2) As authorized pursuant to §20.302; or (3) As provided in §20.303 or § 20.304, applicable respectively to the disposal of licensed material by release into sanitary sewerage systems or burial in soil, or in §.20.103 (Concentrations in Effluents to Unrestricted Areas).

§ 20.302 Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures. Any licensee or applicant for a license may apply to the Commission for approval of proposed procedures to dispose of licensed material in a manner not otherwise authorized in the regulations in this chapter. Each application should include a description, of the licensed material and any other radioactive material involved, including the quantities and kinds of such material and the levels of radioactivity involved, and the proposed manner and conditions of disposal. The application should also include an analysis and evaluation of pertinent information as to the nature of the environment, including topographical; geological, meteorological, and hydrological characteristics; usage of ground and surface waters in the general area; the nature and location of other potentially affected facilities; and procedures to be observed to minimize the risk of unexpected or hazardous exposures.

§ 20.303 Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage systems. No licensee shall discharge licensed material into a sanitary sewerage system unless: (a) It is readily, soluble or dispersible in water; and (b), The quantity of any licensed or other radioactive material released into the system by the licensee in any one day does not exceed the larger of subparagraphs (1) or (2) of this paragraph:

(1) The quantity which, if diluted by the average daily quantity of sewage released into the sewer by the licensee, will result in an average concentration equal to-the limits specified in Appendix B, Table I, Column 2 of this part; or

(2) Ten times the quantity of such material specified in Appendix C of this part; and

(c) The quantity of any licensed or other radioactive material released in any one month, if diluted by the average monthly quantity of water released by the licensee, will not result in an average concentration exceeding the limits specified in Appendix B, Table I, Column 2 of this part; and

(d) The gross quantity of licensed and other radioactive material released into the sewerage system by the licensee does not exceed one curie per year. Excreta from individuals undergoing medical diagnosis or therapy with radioactive material shall be exempt from any limitations contained in this section.

§ 20.304 Disposal by burial in soil. No licensee shall dispose of licensed material by burial in soil unless:

(a) The total quantity of licensed and other radioactive materials buried at any one location and time does not exceed, at the time of burial, 1,000 times the amount specified in Appendix C of this part and

(b) Burial is at a minimum depth of four feet; and

(c) Successive burials are separated by distances of at least six feet and not more than 12 burials are made in any year.

RECORDS, REPORTS, AND NOTIFICATION

§ 20.401 Records of surveys, radiation monitoring, and disposal. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records showing the radiation exposures of all individuals subject to personnel monitoring control under §20.202 of the regulations in this part.

(b) Each licensee shall maintain records showing the name of each individual exposed to radiation pursuant to § 20.101 (a) (2) and the weekly dose of each such individual for the 13 consecutive weeks of highest cumulative weekly dose.

(c) Each licensee shall maintain records in the same units used in the appendices to this part, showing the results of surveys required by § 20.201 (b), and disposals made under §§ 20.302, 20.303, and 20.304.

§ 20.402 Reports of theft or loss of licensed material. Each licensee shall report promptly to the Commission, after its occurrence becomes known to the licensee, any loss or theft of licensed material in such quantities and under such circumstances that it appears to the licensee that a substantial hazard may result to persons in unrestricted areas.

EXCEPTIONS AND ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS

§ 20.501 Applications for exemptions. The Commission may, upon application by any licensee or upon its own initiative, grant such exemptions from the requirements of the regulations in this part as it determines are authorized by law and will not result in undue hazard to life or property.

§ 20.502 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition to those established in the regulations in this part, as it deems appropriate or necessary to protect health or to minimize danger to life or property.

ENFORCEMENT
§ 20.601 Violations. An injunction or other court order may be obtained prohibiting any violation of any provision of the act or any regulation or order issued thereunder. Any person who willfully violates any provision of the act or any regulation or order Issued thereunder may be guilty of a crime and, upon conviction, may be punished by fine or imprisonment or both, as provided by law.

APPENDIX A
PERMISIBLE WEEKLY DOSE

1 For exposures of the whole body to X or gamma rays up to 3 mev this condition may be assumed to be met if the “air dose” does not exceed 300 mr, provided the dose to the gonads does not exceed 300 mrem. “Air dose means in that the dose is measured by an appropriate instrument in air in the region of highest dosage rate” to be occupied by an individual, without the presence of the human body or other absorbing and scattering material.

2 Exposure of these limited portions of the body under these conditions does not alter the total weekly dose of 300 mrem permitted to the blood forming organs in the main portion of the body, to the gonads, or to the Lens of the eye.

APPENDIX B

PERMISSIBLE CONCENTRATIONS IN AIR AND WATER ABOVE NATURAL BACKGROUND

I Air concentrations are given in microcuries per milliliter of air.
2 Water concentrations are given in microcuries per milliliter of water. These figures also apply to foodstuffs In microcuries per gram (wet-weight). For enriched uranium the same radio-activities per unit volume as those for natural uranium are applicable. It should be noted that the contribution of U234 to the gross activity of enriched uranium is 20-40 times that of the U235.

NOTE: For purposes of §§ 20.203 and 20.304, where there is involved a combination of isotopes in known amounts the limit for the combination should be derived as follows:
Determine, for each isotope in the combination, the ratio between the quantity present in the combination and the limit otherwise established for the specific isotope when not in combination- The sum of such ratios for all the isotopes In the combination may not exceed “1” (i. e., “‘unity”).

EXAMPLE: For purposes of § 20.304, If a particular batch contains 2,000 µc of Au198
and 25,000 of C14, it may also include not more than 3,000 Ac of I131. This limit was determined as follows:

Au198/10,000 µc + 25,000 of C14/50,000 µc + 3,000 Ac of I131/10,000 µc

The denominator in each of the above ratios was obtained by multiplying the figure in the table by 1000 as provided in § 20.304.

NOTE: The record keeping and reporting requirements contained herein have been approved by the Bureau of the Budget in accordance with the Federal Reports Act of 1942.
Dated at Washington, D. C., this 16th day of January 1957.
For the Atomic Energy Commission.
K. E. FIELDS,
General Manager.

[F. R. Doc. 57-511; Filed, Jan 25, 1957;
12:30 p. m.]

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