1953-Biological Warfare Training Manual at Treasure Island, San Francisco CA

Film of the Navy purposely contaminating San Francisco with Serratia marcescens in 1951 and in color, “Naval Concepts of Chemical and Biological Warfare” Naval Concepts of Chemical and Biological Warfare (1952), Department of Defense Film Production, National Archives and Records Administration Catalogue # 428.MN.9170A, Declassified NND Authority # 64044

Navy Reports that indicate the Biological Warfare training was concurrent with the Radiological Warfare Decontamination Training at Treasure Island. This constant testing caused an incident in 1950 whereby 11 people were infected by a bacterium that produced a pneumonia that cost a man his life. Senator Edward Kennedy was very upset about this in a 1977 hearing and chewed out the Army official who told the committee about the problem.

NIH report on Serratia infections

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Human Resources. Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research. Biological Testing Involving Human Subjects by the Department of Defense, 1977: Hearings Before the Subcommittee On Health And Scientific Research of the Committee On Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, First Session … March 8 And May 23, 1977. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1977.

United States Navy Biological Warfare Defense, Civil Engineer Corps, United States Navy, TECHNICAL PUBLICATION NAVDOCKS TP-PL-4; REV. 15 April 1953 (REPRINTED 1 SEPT 1953 INCORPORATING PRIOR CHANGES)
Department of the Navy, Bureau of Yards and Docks, Washington 25, DC
:

A1.05 Simulant Agents
Simulant BW agents are microorganisms or compounds having little or no pathogenicity or toxicity, but otherwise resembling true BW agents in certain characteristics or properties, such as viability, size, food or cultural requirements, growth characteristics, persistency, and routes of invasion. They are particularly useful in field testing the behavior of munitions, determination of effect of particle size on penetration of the air passages of animals, survival of vegetable and spore-bearing organisms under experimental and environmental conditions, testing of protective devices and procedures, and for training. purposes. Examples of microbial simulants are serratia marcescens or Bacillus prodigiosus, a vegetable nonsporulating organism, and Bacillus globigii, a spore-forming rod-shaped bacterium. Continue reading “1953-Biological Warfare Training Manual at Treasure Island, San Francisco CA”

Treasure Island CA – 1952- Chemical warfare course and manual, San Francisco CA

Chemical Warfare Defense
Civil Engineer Corps, United States Navy Tp-PL-3
Bureau of Yards and Docks, Department of the Navy Washington, D. C. 1 January 1952
p. 12


133.02 Training Courses
A three-week chemical warfare course is conducted at the Chemical Corps School, Fort McClellan, Alabama, (formerly located at the Chemical Center, Maryland) and at the U.S. Damage Control Training Center, Treasure Island, California. Details on courses are given in NavPers 15795 List of Naval Schools and Courses. These courses are designed for key personnel of the defense organization to prepare them to conduct necessary training of station personnel. A proposed course for personnel to be assigned to decontamination operations is outlined in Department of the Army Field Manual FM 21-40, “Defense Against Chemical Attack”

Agents used

FM 21-40 Defense Against Chemical Attack 1940 by United States. Army. Chemical Warfare Service Page 6

Mustard
Nitrogen Mustard

Blister Agents
Lewisite
Ethyldichlorarsine
Methyldichlorasine
Phenyldichlorasine
Mixed Blister Gases

Choking Agents
Phosgene
Diphosgene
Chloropicrin

Systemic Agents
Hydrocyanic Acid
Cyanogen Chloride
Arsine

Nerve Agents
G Gas

Vomiting Agents
Adamsite
Diphenylchloroarsine
Diphenylocyanarsine

Tear Agents
Chloroacetophenone
Chloroacetophenone (solution3)
Chloroacetophenone (training solution 4)
Brombenzyloyanids

Screening Smokes
Hexachlorethane Mixture
Sulfur Trioxids in chlor-sulfonic acid
Titanium tetrachloride
White phosphorus Continue reading “Treasure Island CA – 1952- Chemical warfare course and manual, San Francisco CA”

1946-10-01 Meeting discussing the dumping of radioactive Sand into SF Bay, Puget Sound, LA, San Diego, Pearl Harbor, Norfolk etc.

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

Citation: DTIC AD0473908: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3 pp. 61-73

REPORT OF CONFERENCE
San Francisco Naval Shipyard
Meeting at 1100, 1 October 1946.
Present were:
Dr. F. H. Rodenbaugh
Dr. K. 3. Scott
Capt. W. E. Walsh (MC) USN
Capt. Wynn, USN
Capt. Lemler, USN
Capt. Maxwell, USN
Lt. Comdr. Turnbaugh, USN
Lt. Comdr. Skow, USN
Lt. Chadbourn (MC) USN
Lt. (jg) Morton (MC) USN
Lt. Howell, USNR
Mr. Hammond
Mr. Gordon
Comdr. Hoffman

SECRET

Page 61
[Page 62]

SECRET

Maxwell: We called this conference together to make certain recommendations to’ BuShips on the means and methods to decontaminate salt water piping based on experiments conducted at this Yard – using ammonium citrate solution and muriatic acid solution. We found that muriatic acid removes all the foreign matter and activity. It does a complete job. The ammonium citrate does a similar job to a lesser extent – about 90% of the activity is removed. We found a medicine that can be used – it may not be the best, etc.

Dr. Scott and Dr. Rodenbaugh, are you in a position to give us a few answers that we are after – when should we use this medicine – what standard should we use – when should we use the acid and when should we use the citrate thru the salt water system?

Rodenbaugh: You mean as to how much radiation you have in the systems? You may ask me from a medical point of view, but ask Dr. Scott about the physical aspects. Continue reading “1946-10-01 Meeting discussing the dumping of radioactive Sand into SF Bay, Puget Sound, LA, San Diego, Pearl Harbor, Norfolk etc.”

1946-12-04 ACID AND OTHER DECONTAMINATING SOLUTIONS USED IN CLEARING SALT WATER SYSTEMS MAY BE DISCHARGED INTO HARBORS

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

Citation: DTIC AD0473908: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3 Page 53

TO:
COMWESSEAFRON COM 11
NAVSHIPYD SAN FRAN, C0M12
NAVSHIPYD PUGET SOUND
NAVSHIPYD MARE BLAND
NAVSHIPYD TERMINAL IS
NAVSHIPYD NORFOLK, COM ’13
NAVSHIPYD PEARL, COM 14
NAVSHIPYD SANDIEGO, COM 15
ATC M KWAJ, COMMARIANAS
COMNAVPHIL
CINCPAC
COMSERVPAC CNO
032133Z NCR 1162

ON BASIS FURTHER STUDY RADIOLOGICAL HAZARDS AND CONFERENCES WITH BUMED, MANHATTAN DISTRICT, RADIOLOGICAL SAFETY ADVISOR AND UNIVCAL REPRESENTATIVES FOLLOWING DECISIONS MADE. NO HEALTH OR SECURITY HAZARDS ARE PRESENT IN FOLLOWING PROCEDURES. THESE INSTRUCTIONS SUPERSEDE PREVIOUS RESTRICTIONS IMPOSED AND WILL BE INCORPORATED IN CHANGE TO MY CONF LTR ALL/ALL CROSSROADS /C S99) (0) OF 22 NOVEMBER 1946: A SPECIAL DISPOSAL OF SAND USED IN WET SANDBLASTING UNDERWATER BODIES CROSSROADS NON TARGET VESSELS NOT REQUIRED. B. MARINE GROWTH ANTSCALE REMOVED FROM VESSELS AT FIRST DRYDOCKING SHALL BE SEGREGATED AND SUNK AT SEA AS PREVIOUSLY PRESCRIBED. Continue reading “1946-12-04 ACID AND OTHER DECONTAMINATING SOLUTIONS USED IN CLEARING SALT WATER SYSTEMS MAY BE DISCHARGED INTO HARBORS”

1946-09-24 RADIOLOGICAL CLEARANCE OF NON TARGET VESSELS AND PROCEDURES FOR DECONTAMINATION; Ships bound for Pacific bases after Atomic Bomb tests

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

Citation: DTIC AD0473908: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON-TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3 pp. 16-19

NOTE: THIS DIRECTIVE PARTIALLY SUPERSEDED CJTF1 SERIAL
079 OF 9 SEPTEMBER 1946. (SEE APPENDIX II)

BUSHIPS Code 180 NAVY DEPARTMENT
All/Crossroads/FS/L9 BUREAU OF SHIPS BUMED
All/Crossroads (P2) and A4-1/FS and
Serial 1381 BUREAU OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY
WASHINGTON 25, D. C.

CONFIDENTIAL
AIRMAIL SPEEDLETTER
24 SEPTEMBER 1946

TO: CINCPAC
COMWESSEAFRON
COMSERVPAC
COMTWELVE
COM19THFLT

SUBJECT IS RADIOLOGICAL CLEARANCE OF NON TARGET VESSELS AND PROCEDURES FOR DECONTAMINATION X BUSHIPS HAS BEEN ASSIGNED COGNIZANCE OF DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES PLUS SAFE OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE METHODS IN CASES OF ALL VESSELS EXPOSED TO RADIOACTIVITY X BUMED ASSIGNED RESPONSIBIUTY FOR DETERMINING SAFE RADIOLOGICAL LIMITS X THESE BUREAUS WILL ACT JOINTLY IN GIVING FINAL RADIOLOGICAL CLEARANCE TO VESSELS AFTER REVIEWING REMAINING IN ACTIVE SERVICE X REFERENCE COMJOINT TASK FORCE ONE SERIAL ZERO SEVEN NINE OF NINE SEPTEMBER X WHERE INFORMATION AND INSTRUCTIONS THIS SPEEDLETTER CONFLICT WITH REFERENCE THIS SPEEDLETTER WILL APPLY X Continue reading “1946-09-24 RADIOLOGICAL CLEARANCE OF NON TARGET VESSELS AND PROCEDURES FOR DECONTAMINATION; Ships bound for Pacific bases after Atomic Bomb tests”

1946-09-04 CINPAC ORDERS Disposal of Target Vessels hit by two Atomic Bombs in Operation Crossroads

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

Citation: DTIC AD0473908: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3 pp 14-15
Citation: https://archive.org/download/DTIC_AD0473908/DTIC_AD0473908.pdf

FROM: CINCPAC TO: ALPAC 238
INFO: CNO
4 SEPT 46 BUSHIPS
COM 11/COMWESSEAFRON
COM 12/CJTF-l
COMDR ALL NAV TG JTF-1
COM 13/ COM 14

032333Z NCR 9560

ALL VESSELS AND SMALL BOATS INCLUDING SMALL LANDING CRAFT WHICH HAVE BEEN EXPOSED TO RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION AS A RESULT OF CROSSROADS WILL BE TREATED AS FOLLOWS UNTIL DEFINITELY PROVEN SAFE BY MONITOR GROUPS TO BE ESTABLISHED AT SAN FRANCISCO, KWAJALEIN, GUAM AND UNTIL DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS ARE PROMULGATED BY CJTF-1. Continue reading “1946-09-04 CINPAC ORDERS Disposal of Target Vessels hit by two Atomic Bombs in Operation Crossroads”

1946-09-11 RECORD OF TELEPHONE CONVERSATION BETWEEN CAPTAIN W. G. WALSH, RADIOLOGICAL OFFICER, FOR JOINT TASK FORCE 1 AND CAPTAIN C. J. CATER, PLANNING OFFICER, SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 pp. 11-12

[Note all page numbers and notes will be enclosed in these brackets]

SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD Code No. (200) San Francisco 24, Calif.

RECORD OF TELEPHONE CONVERSATION BETWEEN CAPTAIN W. G. WALSH, RADIOLOGICAL OFFICER, FOR JOINT TASK FORCE 1 AND CAPTAIN C. J. CATER, PLANNING OFFICER, SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD, ON THIS DATE.
11 September 1946.

Captain Walsh stated that he had his apparatus ready to conduct the tests for sandblasting which he would like to conduct on 12 September starting at 9:00 A.M. Captain Cater stated the Yard would be ready. Continue reading “1946-09-11 RECORD OF TELEPHONE CONVERSATION BETWEEN CAPTAIN W. G. WALSH, RADIOLOGICAL OFFICER, FOR JOINT TASK FORCE 1 AND CAPTAIN C. J. CATER, PLANNING OFFICER, SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD”

1946-09-10 Cleaning Salt Water Systems; dumping radiation directly into into San Francisco Bay

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

Citation: DTIC AD0473908: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3 pp. 9-10

[Note all page numbers and notes will be enclosed in these brackets]

DISTRICT MEDICAL OFFICE TWELFTH NAVAL DISTRICT SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA
10 September 1946
CONFIDENTIAL MEMORANDUM

To: Commander, San Francisco Naval Shipyard

Subj: Cleaning Salt Water Systems

  1. The following test procedure to be used on the cleaning of non-target ships; USS LAFFEY, USS BARTON, and any other ship participating in the Bikini operations. Accurate records are to be kept of all operations and a copy forwarded by Air Mail Special Delivery to Rear Admiral T.A. Solberg, Code 180, BuShips. A copy will also be furnished to Captain W. E. Walsh, USN, District Medical Office, 50 Fell Street, San Francisco, California.
  2. (a) A solution of citrate acid and ammonium hydroxide for cleaning of salt water piping systems (strength to be determined) is to be entered into the system on the out-board leg of the suction side of the suction pump. All outlets except one of the crew’s water closets are to be closed. This one outlet is to allow only a minimum flow.
    Then at each of the-other outlets of the system, water is to be drawn off until presence of the citrate acid and ammonium hydroxide solution is definitely found to be in that section of piping. Flow through the system is to be continuous co the one open 1 outlet. The citrate acid and ammonium hydroxide solution is to be continuously entered into the system from the outboard side of the suction pumps, (overflow from the outlet may be allowed to enter the harbor). Approximate time of Operation to be one hour.

    [Later work determined that radiation was concentrated in the acid solution and therefore the overflow was radioactive and dumped into the Bay at Hunters Point Shipyard]

    (b) Second step of the cleaning operation is to completely flush out the entire system with fresh water and concentration of standard bailer compound, one (1) pound to twenty (20) gallons of water.
    (c) Continuous records of the readings of the system are to be kept.

SECRET

Page 9
[Page 10]

3. (a) Samples of copper-nickel and iron piping of salt water systems are to be tested in three different concentrations of hydrochloric acid solutions of one half normal, three-quarters normal, and one normal. The pipes samples are to be tested in small sections of about three inches in length.
(b) Similar samples are to be forwarded to Dr. Scott, University of California.[Dr. K.G. Scott, UC Berkeley Radiation Laboratory]
(c) The object of these tests is-to determine the effect of these various solutions on the cleaning marine growth, rust and other foreign matter on the inside of the pipes. Quantitative measurements of the marine growth, rust and other foreign matter on the interior of the pipe should be made before and during the testing.

  1. (a) Upon the first cleaning of heat transfer units, principally evaporators, or distilling plants. On such heat transfer equipment where scale is formed by deposits from salt water systems, the scale should be cleaned as much as possible by using thermal shock treatment.
    (b) All scale that has cracked off the piping shall be thoroughly “removed, using standard safety precautions.
    (c) A solution of muriatic acid shall then be used to further complete the removal of scale.
    (d) A monitor shall be present on opening up the heat exchange unit at all times when following the above procedure.
    (e) All scale removed should be segregated and dumped at sea.
  2. Cleaning of the ship’s side in drydock shall be accomplished in the following manner:
    (a) The ship’s side shall be kept moist and marine growth shall be scraped off. The growth shall be kept wet while scraping down. All materials scraped from the side of the ship shall be cleaned from the drydock and segregated. The segregated material shall be dumped at sea.
    (b) Wet sandblasting, using standard equipment, is to be then used for removing the remainder of paint on the hull. The sand is also to be dumped at sea.

T. A. SOLBERG
Rear Admiral, USN.

V W. S. MAXWELL Captain, USN
By direction

SECRET

Page 10

Source: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON-TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 2 , DNA ltr, 21 Apr 1982, THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED, DIRECTOR OF SHIPTECHNICAL INSPECTION REPORT. Radiological Decontamination of Target and Non-Target Vessels, VOLUME 2 OF 3.

 

1946-09-06 Telephone-conversation between Captain W. E. Walsh (MC) USN, Joint Task Force One, Medical Officer, and Captain C. J. Cater, Planning Officer, San Francisco Naval Shipyard

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

Citation: OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 p. 8

[Note all page numbers and notes will be enclosed in these brackets]

SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD
Code No. (200) San Francisco 24, Calif.
DD/A3-2
(28848)
6 SEPT 1946
To: ComTwelve

Subj: Telephone-conversation between Captain W. E. Walsh (MC) USN, Joint Task Force One, Medical Officer, and Captain C. J. Cater, Planning Officer, San Francisco Naval Shipyard, 6 September 1946 – Confirmation of

  1. Captain Walsh informed Captain Cater that it would be satisfactory for the San Francisco Naval Shipyard to proceed with all repair and alteration work on the USS WALKE, USS BARTON, USS LAFFEY and USS LOWRY, with the exception of work on the underwater body, and any other machinery in which salt water had been circulated. Work on machinery in which salt water had been circulated will be deferred pending further notification from Captain Walsh.
  2. As regards the LAFFEY, which is now in floating drydock, care must be taken that no workmen enter the dock except those actually employed in the necessary tests. It was emphasized that no other workmen should enter the dock around the outside of the ship. It was satisfactory for the workman to go inside the LAFFEY as set forth in paragraph 1 above.

CC: CWSF
330

C. J. CATER Captain USN Planning Officer District Medical Officer
163
300
100

SECRET

Page 8

[Captain Walsh operated out of the District Naval Office which was at 50 Fell Street San Francisco. I am documenting all the content I can find from the reports so they can be cross referenced.]

OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON-TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 2 , DNA ltr, 21 Apr 1982, THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED, DIRECTOR OF SHIP TECHNICAL INSPECTION REPORT. Radiological Decontamination of Target and Non-Target Vessels, VOLUME 2 OF 3.

OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part I

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

Introductory statements to the Report

OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part I pp 3-17
https://archive.org/download/DTIC_AD0473906/DTIC_AD0473906.pdf

[Note all page numbers and notes will be enclosed in these brackets]

[It is important to note that the safe radiation levels at the time did not put into consideration the cancer hazard and all they were concerned about is preventing radiation sickness. All of the sailors involved in this operation were later compensated with a settlement from the United States after Congressional Hearings in the Clinton Administration, the ones still alive of course.]

PART I

DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET VESSELS

1. As a result of Test Able on 1 July, no extensive deposit of long life radioactive fission products or alpha emitters was found on the target vessels. Radioactivity existing was induced type and was of very short half-life. Within a period of twenty four hours after fission of the bomb the level of radioactivity permitted reoccupation of surviving targets, with the exception of concrete barge YO-160, without radiological hazard. Consequently no decontamination of target vessels was required. Continue reading “OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part I”