Plutonium injections – Human Radiation Experiments at UC Berkeley, UC San Francisco by Joseph Hamilton and Robert Stone

Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments
Final Report
October 1995
U.S. Government Printing Office
pp. 249-257
http://www.archive.org/details/advisorycommitte00unit

Official record from the 1995 Human Radiation Experiments Hearings in the US Congress detailing the Plutonium Injections by Dr. Joseph Hamilton and Dr Robert Stone, of the University of California Berkeley who conducted Plutonium injection experiments on unsuspecting victims in San Francisco at UC San Francisco and at the Chinese Hospital in San Francisco at the same time they were consulting on the cleaning of ships at Navy Bases all across the Pacific to clean ships used in the 1946 atomic Tests at Bikini Atoll. Dr. Hamilton would go onto set the safe level of radiation exposure used by the US Navy in radiation test well into the 1960s in the Bay Area. The problem being they were only concerned with preventing radiation sickness and not the long term effects of exposure to radiation. This resulted in not only their own deaths but countless tens of thousands of people being exposed to nuclear radiation needlessly to this very day! The Liability of UC Berkeley in this crime against humanity is off the charts! Continue reading “Plutonium injections – Human Radiation Experiments at UC Berkeley, UC San Francisco by Joseph Hamilton and Robert Stone”

1946-09-16 Submarine Barracks at Hunters Point Shipyard contaminated by use as decontamination centers for workers at Shipyard to clean ships used in atomic tests.

Citation: OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 pp. 14-18

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

[Submarine Barracks at Hunters Point Shipyard now used as commercial space and was the ironically the site office of Lennar Builders were used for decontamination of shipyard workers who scraped and sandblasted the ships from the Atomic Tests. These buildings were used by the workers to clean off by showering off the plutonium and other radioactive elements and may be some of the most contaminated buildings on the site. The Hot Cell where they stored nuclear materials in lead lined chambers and maybe the storage of radioactive waste all over the shipyard may have more contamination. These are also where the workers ate their lunches while in contaminated uniforms.

Building 103 which still stands and is directly over the fence from the Artists buildings is referenced directly in this report but the decontamination centers soon expanded to all of the submarine barracks as the ranks of the personnel increased.]

Google Map

REPORT NO. 2

EXPERIMENTAL WORK, SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.

SECOND REPORT 16 September 1946 – INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Ships from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard starting 5 September 1946. Continue reading “1946-09-16 Submarine Barracks at Hunters Point Shipyard contaminated by use as decontamination centers for workers at Shipyard to clean ships used in atomic tests.”

1946-10-01 Meeting discussing the dumping of radioactive Sand into SF Bay, Puget Sound, LA, San Diego, Pearl Harbor, Norfolk etc.

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

Citation: DTIC AD0473908: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3 pp. 61-73

REPORT OF CONFERENCE
San Francisco Naval Shipyard
Meeting at 1100, 1 October 1946.
Present were:
Dr. F. H. Rodenbaugh
Dr. K. 3. Scott
Capt. W. E. Walsh (MC) USN
Capt. Wynn, USN
Capt. Lemler, USN
Capt. Maxwell, USN
Lt. Comdr. Turnbaugh, USN
Lt. Comdr. Skow, USN
Lt. Chadbourn (MC) USN
Lt. (jg) Morton (MC) USN
Lt. Howell, USNR
Mr. Hammond
Mr. Gordon
Comdr. Hoffman

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Maxwell: We called this conference together to make certain recommendations to’ BuShips on the means and methods to decontaminate salt water piping based on experiments conducted at this Yard – using ammonium citrate solution and muriatic acid solution. We found that muriatic acid removes all the foreign matter and activity. It does a complete job. The ammonium citrate does a similar job to a lesser extent – about 90% of the activity is removed. We found a medicine that can be used – it may not be the best, etc.

Dr. Scott and Dr. Rodenbaugh, are you in a position to give us a few answers that we are after – when should we use this medicine – what standard should we use – when should we use the acid and when should we use the citrate thru the salt water system?

Rodenbaugh: You mean as to how much radiation you have in the systems? You may ask me from a medical point of view, but ask Dr. Scott about the physical aspects. Continue reading “1946-10-01 Meeting discussing the dumping of radioactive Sand into SF Bay, Puget Sound, LA, San Diego, Pearl Harbor, Norfolk etc.”

1946-12-04 ACID AND OTHER DECONTAMINATING SOLUTIONS USED IN CLEARING SALT WATER SYSTEMS MAY BE DISCHARGED INTO HARBORS

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

Citation: DTIC AD0473908: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3 Page 53

TO:
COMWESSEAFRON COM 11
NAVSHIPYD SAN FRAN, C0M12
NAVSHIPYD PUGET SOUND
NAVSHIPYD MARE BLAND
NAVSHIPYD TERMINAL IS
NAVSHIPYD NORFOLK, COM ’13
NAVSHIPYD PEARL, COM 14
NAVSHIPYD SANDIEGO, COM 15
ATC M KWAJ, COMMARIANAS
COMNAVPHIL
CINCPAC
COMSERVPAC CNO
032133Z NCR 1162

ON BASIS FURTHER STUDY RADIOLOGICAL HAZARDS AND CONFERENCES WITH BUMED, MANHATTAN DISTRICT, RADIOLOGICAL SAFETY ADVISOR AND UNIVCAL REPRESENTATIVES FOLLOWING DECISIONS MADE. NO HEALTH OR SECURITY HAZARDS ARE PRESENT IN FOLLOWING PROCEDURES. THESE INSTRUCTIONS SUPERSEDE PREVIOUS RESTRICTIONS IMPOSED AND WILL BE INCORPORATED IN CHANGE TO MY CONF LTR ALL/ALL CROSSROADS /C S99) (0) OF 22 NOVEMBER 1946: A SPECIAL DISPOSAL OF SAND USED IN WET SANDBLASTING UNDERWATER BODIES CROSSROADS NON TARGET VESSELS NOT REQUIRED. B. MARINE GROWTH ANTSCALE REMOVED FROM VESSELS AT FIRST DRYDOCKING SHALL BE SEGREGATED AND SUNK AT SEA AS PREVIOUSLY PRESCRIBED. Continue reading “1946-12-04 ACID AND OTHER DECONTAMINATING SOLUTIONS USED IN CLEARING SALT WATER SYSTEMS MAY BE DISCHARGED INTO HARBORS”

Featured

Dumping Nuclear Waste Directly into San Francisco Bay, the Cover UP, NAVY REPORT 10 December 1946

NAVY report detailing horrific decisions that have cost the lives of thousands of people. Dumping Nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay
Conspiracy to cover up the contamination.

DTIC AD0473908: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3 pp.102-115
Note: “The Cover Up” is on page 109
[Note all page numbers and notes will be enclosed in these brackets]

Code 180 A
All/Crossroads/S99
S-E-C-R-E-T

NAVY DEPARTMENT
Bureau of Ships
Washington 25, D.C.

10 December 1946

MEMORANDUM

Subject: Conference on Radiological Safety; Report of.
Time: 0910, 27 November 1946.
Place: Navy Department, Bureau of Ships Room T3-2703.

Present: R.Adm.SOLBERG (BuShips) Col. NICHOLS (ManhatDist)
Capt. MAXWELL (BuShips) Col. ROPER (ManhatDist)
Cdr. REE (BuShips) Col. FIELDS (ManhatDist)
Cdr. HOFFMAN (BuShips ) Col. COONEY (RadSafe)
WesCoRep.) Capt.LYON (BuMed)
Cdr. LANGER (BuShips) Dr. HAMILTON (Univ.Calif)
Cdr. HAWES (BuShips) Continue reading “Dumping Nuclear Waste Directly into San Francisco Bay, the Cover UP, NAVY REPORT 10 December 1946”

1946-09-24 RADIOLOGICAL CLEARANCE OF NON TARGET VESSELS AND PROCEDURES FOR DECONTAMINATION; Ships bound for Pacific bases after Atomic Bomb tests

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

Citation: DTIC AD0473908: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON-TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3 pp. 16-19

NOTE: THIS DIRECTIVE PARTIALLY SUPERSEDED CJTF1 SERIAL
079 OF 9 SEPTEMBER 1946. (SEE APPENDIX II)

BUSHIPS Code 180 NAVY DEPARTMENT
All/Crossroads/FS/L9 BUREAU OF SHIPS BUMED
All/Crossroads (P2) and A4-1/FS and
Serial 1381 BUREAU OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY
WASHINGTON 25, D. C.

CONFIDENTIAL
AIRMAIL SPEEDLETTER
24 SEPTEMBER 1946

TO: CINCPAC
COMWESSEAFRON
COMSERVPAC
COMTWELVE
COM19THFLT

SUBJECT IS RADIOLOGICAL CLEARANCE OF NON TARGET VESSELS AND PROCEDURES FOR DECONTAMINATION X BUSHIPS HAS BEEN ASSIGNED COGNIZANCE OF DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES PLUS SAFE OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE METHODS IN CASES OF ALL VESSELS EXPOSED TO RADIOACTIVITY X BUMED ASSIGNED RESPONSIBIUTY FOR DETERMINING SAFE RADIOLOGICAL LIMITS X THESE BUREAUS WILL ACT JOINTLY IN GIVING FINAL RADIOLOGICAL CLEARANCE TO VESSELS AFTER REVIEWING REMAINING IN ACTIVE SERVICE X REFERENCE COMJOINT TASK FORCE ONE SERIAL ZERO SEVEN NINE OF NINE SEPTEMBER X WHERE INFORMATION AND INSTRUCTIONS THIS SPEEDLETTER CONFLICT WITH REFERENCE THIS SPEEDLETTER WILL APPLY X Continue reading “1946-09-24 RADIOLOGICAL CLEARANCE OF NON TARGET VESSELS AND PROCEDURES FOR DECONTAMINATION; Ships bound for Pacific bases after Atomic Bomb tests”

1946-09-04 CINPAC ORDERS Disposal of Target Vessels hit by two Atomic Bombs in Operation Crossroads

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

Citation: DTIC AD0473908: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3 pp 14-15
Citation: https://archive.org/download/DTIC_AD0473908/DTIC_AD0473908.pdf

FROM: CINCPAC TO: ALPAC 238
INFO: CNO
4 SEPT 46 BUSHIPS
COM 11/COMWESSEAFRON
COM 12/CJTF-l
COMDR ALL NAV TG JTF-1
COM 13/ COM 14

032333Z NCR 9560

ALL VESSELS AND SMALL BOATS INCLUDING SMALL LANDING CRAFT WHICH HAVE BEEN EXPOSED TO RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION AS A RESULT OF CROSSROADS WILL BE TREATED AS FOLLOWS UNTIL DEFINITELY PROVEN SAFE BY MONITOR GROUPS TO BE ESTABLISHED AT SAN FRANCISCO, KWAJALEIN, GUAM AND UNTIL DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS ARE PROMULGATED BY CJTF-1. Continue reading “1946-09-04 CINPAC ORDERS Disposal of Target Vessels hit by two Atomic Bombs in Operation Crossroads”

1946-07-31 Director of Ship Material Reducing Radiation on Ships by crews on Ships used in Atomic Tests, that were being sent to San Francisco, Pearl Harbor etc.

Citation: DTIC AD0473908: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3
pp. 8-13
Citation: https://archive.org/download/DTIC_AD0473908/DTIC_AD0473908.pdf

SECRET
JOINT TASK FORCE ONE
DIRECTOR OF SHIP MATERIAL
TARGET PREPARATION AND INSPECTION OFFICE
014Kl/EJH/naa/S88 4 August 1946.

DIRECTOR OF SHIP MATERIAL MEMORANDUM No. :

From: Director of Ship Material.
To : CTU 1.2.7
TU 1.2.7
All DSM Initial Boarding Teams
All Target Vessels.

Subject: Preliminary Decontamination of Target Vessels by Ships of TU 1.2.7.
Ref: (a) DSM Memorandum No. 13 of 31 July 1946.

Encl: (A) Instructions for mixing and applying Paint Removal Mixture.

  1. Reference (a) outlined the procedures to be followed by the ship’s force in rehabilitating the various contaminated target vessels, once a tolerable level of radioactivity obtains. Many of the target vessels at present have such radioactive contamination that the ship’s forces cannot work aboard a sufficient length of time to safely and effectively use the procedures given in reference
    (a) Therefore, it will be necessary to take preliminary steps to clear the vessels sufficiently to permit the ship’s force to pick up the ball. This preliminary decontamination procedure should reduce the radiation intensities to permit at least four hours’ working time for the ship’s force over substantial areas of the topsides of the target vessels.
  2. The preliminary decontamination procedure that shows promise of accomplishing the desired results is best accomplished by vessels of TU 1.2.7. The steps that comprise this procedure are as follows:

Enclosure (C) of Enclosure (F) to Director of Ship Material Serial 00447

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(a) A through wash down with plain water. This removes some of the likelihood of contamination of boarding personnel.

(b) The radiological monitor, DSM representative, and ship’s force representative will then make a quick preliminary survey of the target vessel noting general average Roentgen readings and also any hot spots which may be present. Together with the Commanding Officer of the salvage vessel, a plan of action will be laid out prior to going to work; on the ship which in some cases would use up tolerance time needlessly.

(c) If conditions permit, the ship’s force working party will then board the target vessel and remove all life rafts, canvas not protecting an interior space, exposed manila, fire hose, and the like for which no suitable decontamination procedure has been devised and which have been fi ind to be uniformly hot. The working party will be worked in relays to avoid over exposure and will be returned to the hotel transport upon completion. When the target ship is too lot to permit this to be done at this time, the operation will be accomplished after (f) below.

(d) After removal of canvas, life rafts, etc., the target vessel is sprayed with the paint removal mixture in accordance with enclosure (A).

(e) After an interval of approximately two hours the ship is again hosed down. This wash down is for the purpose of removing paint. The maximum force of the fire monitors must be applied to all painted surfaces to accomplish this end. All decks and platforms should be swept with the hose upon completion to remove all paint chips possible from the ship. This washing should proceed from the top of the target vessel downward to avoid recontamination an area that has been cleaned below. Where contaminated paint chips are washed down on a wood deck they should be frequently swept clear
(by the fire monitors) to avoid transferring contamination to the wood. Care should be taken to avoid holidays in the removal job as it is more effective to do a comparatively small part of the ship thoroughly than the whole ship in a haphazard manner. When the paint removal mixture has been properly applied, at least the top coat of paint should be removed by this washing, and the radioactivity level substantially reduced.

(f) The target vessel should then be reboarded by the DSM representative with a monitor and a responsible officer from the target vessel. The general radiation level will be checked at. this boarding to ascertain whether or not the vessel is suitable for application

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of decontamination methods outlined in reference
(a) All hot spots should be noted and the source of the excessive radiation determined if practicable. If the hot spot is extensive and apparently due to holidays in removal of paint from large surfaces it may be necessary to. Repeat the applicable steps in the procedure to clear up the hot spot.

  1. When the first preliminary survey of radiological conditions is made, consideration must be given to the length of time a salvage or firefighting vessel can lay alongside without exceeding the tolerance. Step (e) in the procedure will require the longest time interval estimated at about four hours per destroyer and a correspondingly longer time for larger vessels. It is very desirable to actually put a line over to the target vessel to permit laying alongside and performing an effective job of washing down. Care should be exercised in all washing down to avoid washing contaminated materials into the target vessels or upon the salvage vessel concerned. In some cases danger exists of introducing large amounts of water into the ships. It may be necessary to skip certain areas of the ship, such as around open hatches on APA’s, large air intakes on all vessels which are not fitted with suitable closures, etc.
  2. During the entire decontamination a representative of the Director of Ship Material and an officer representative of the target vessel being worked on will be present. Radiological safety monitors are aboard all TU 1.2.7 vessels which are assigned to this work. The duties of these officers will be to see that the provisions of this memorandum are safely and effectively carried out. They will maintain liaison with the DSM organization and the commanding officer of the target vessel, make such reports and recommendations as are normally made by Initial Boarding Teams and, as circumstances warrant, arrange for working parties from the target vessel, etc.
  3. Many of the life rafts, some of the canvas and other materials removed in step (c) above will be required if the target ship is to return under her own power to the port designated for ultimate disposition. The life rafts should be secured close aboard astern of the target ships. Contaminated fire hose, manila and essential canvas may be loaded into them. Somewhat limited ex-

Enclosure (C) to Enclosure (F) to Director Ship Material Serial 00447

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perience would indicate that this may be a satisfactory decontamination procedure for these materials. Care must be exercised in hand ling these highly radioactive materials to avoid insofar as practicable, contamination of the clothes and persons of the working party.

T. A. SOLBERG,
Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy.

Copy to: CJTF-1
CTG 1.2
CTG 1.3
CTG 1.8

Enclosure (C) to Enclosure (F) to Director Ship Material Serial 00447
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PRELIMINARY SECRET
Enclosure (A) To DSM Memorandum No.__.
Subject: Instructions for Mixing and Applying the Paint Removal Mixture.

  1. All vessels which are to be assigned to apply the Paint Removal Mixture have been fitted with tanks of about 1000 gallon capacity for preparing and holding the Paint Removal Mixture, This mixture will be applied by using a Chrysler salvage pump taking suction from the tank and supplying a 1 1/2” hose at suitable pressure to reach the surface it is desired to coat. The l 1/2” hose may be fitted with an all-purpose nozzle or a long handled applicator, with a modified fog nozzle attachment as appropriate for the work to be accomplished. All painted surfaces of the target vessel should be thoroughly coated, although it is undesirable to apply so much that pools of the mixture form on the deck or pour out of the scuppers, inasmuch as the supply of materials in the area is limited and effort is expended in mixing wasted material. The maneuvering of the salvage or firefighting vessel and the pressure on the pump should be varied as circumstances warrant to secure complete coverage of all the painted surfaces and to reduce the wastage to a minimum. It will probably be found desirable and necessary to make several passes at the ship to be sprayed in order to obtain the desired results with the least exposure.
  2. The Paint Removal Mixture is composed of lye, boiler compound and cornstarch. The amounts required for 1000 gallons of mixture are 450 lbs. of lye, 600 lbs. of boiler compound and 75 lbs. of cornstarch. About 500 gallons of fresh water should be put in the tank and the lye and boiler compound added gradually and thoroughly mixed and dissolved. The cornstarch should be made into a thin suspension separately in buckets or GJ cans and added gradually with continuous stirring to obtain a final mixture free of lumps. Fresh water to make 1000 gallons should be added at this time. The whole batch should then be heated by a steam hose until the starch swells and the boiler compound completely dissolves. The mixture will now have the consistency of a thin paste. It will be uniform and capable of

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being applied in the manner outlined. If a ready source of steam is not available for cooking tie formula, the cornstarch will have to be cooked separately in a galley kettle until thickened and then added and stirred into the mixture until it has a uniform consistency.

  1. In mixing and supplying the Paint Removal Mixture it must be borne in mind that the lye mixture will produce painful burns if splashed on the skin. If it gets into the eyes, it may be dangerous as well as painful. Therefore, it will be necessary to take due precautions to prevent injuries by wearing of suitable protective clothing by necessary personnel. All unnecessary men should be kept clear of the areas where the mixture is being handled. Suitable first aid materials such as boric acid ointment and eyewash should be broken out and the pharmacist’s mate should be alerted to take care of any minor casualties should they occur.

Enclosure (C) to Enclosure (F) to Director Ship Material Serial 00447

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OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3. 1946 UNCLASSIFIED DNA ltr, 21 Apr 1982 DIRECTOR OF SHIP MATERIAL TECHNICAL INSPECTION REPORT

1946-07-31 Decontamination Procedures on Target Vessel – DIRECTOR OF SHIP MATERIAL JOINT TASK FORCE ONE

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

[Note all page numbers and notes will be enclosed in these brackets]

Citation: DTIC AD0473908: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3 pp. 4-7
Citation: https://archive.org/download/DTIC_AD0473908/DTIC_AD0473908.pdf

DIRECTOR OF SHIP MATERIAL JOINT TASK FORCE ONE

31 July 1946.

DIRECTOR OF SHIP MATERIAL MEMORANDUM #13.

To: All Target Vessels.

Subj: Decontamination Procedures on Target Vessels.

  1. Most target vessels are contaminated to a greater or less degree with fission products and therefore present varying degrees of radiological hazards which at the present time prevent reboarding. Decontamination procedures are being carried out at the present time in order to make it possible for portions of the crews of these vessels to return aboard to complete the decontamination procedures. It is expected to bring the radiological hazards now existing in general on the topside of these vessels to a point where it will be possible for personnel to be aboard for a period of at least four (4) hours at one time. Commanding Officers should therefore, organize boarding parties on this basis and in consideration of the conditions and procedures contained in this memorandum.
  2. Fission products are sub-microscopic particles and therefore not visible to the eye and their presence can only be determined, by the use of monitoring instruments. These products are extremely difficult to remove in as much as they are quite firmly imbedded in the paintwork, metallic structures, wooden decks and particularly in such absorbent materials as lines, clothing, bunting, etc. Great care must also be taken in all decontamination procedures to prevent personnel engaged in these operations from becoming contaminated themselves.
  3. The following procedures will assist in re-establishing normal conditions. It is expected that procedures will have to be repeated a number of times in order to get effective results.

(a) Washing down entire ships including topside structures, decks, sides and ail exposed gear. It has not been possible up to the

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present time to determine how much contamination exists below decks and these conditions must be determined as soon as boarding parties arrive.

(b) In order to carry out (a) above it will be necessary to gain access to certain below decks spaces to establish power, either by installed generators, ship’s boilers, or by portable pumps available for this purpose. Access to the necessary spaces must be monitored carefully. It is hoped that because of the steps taken to close all openings below decks that below deck spaces will be relatively free of radiological hazards. However, attention is invited to the fact that hazards existing on one side of a deck or bulkhead also presents a hazard on the other side. For instance, it is quite certain that hulls of ships below the water line generally will be highly radioactive at this time and therefore it is desirable for all personnel to keep at a distance of at least two (2) feet from these portions of the hull except for short periods necessary to do essential work such as opening and closing valves, etc.

(c) The object of (a) above is to remove as much as possible of the less firmly attached fission products. Subsequently, it will be necessary to follow more drastic procedures in order to remove the remaining products; generally speaking, it will be necessary to remove by polishing, vigorous scrubbing, holystoning, or other means, at least a portion of all surfaces and carefully washing down all removed material and insure that it is washed overboard. At the present time, the Director of Ship Material is conducting experiments with foamite lye, flour slurries, and other absorbent materials in the hope that some material available on the ships can be used to hasten the processes of decontamination. Damage to paint and appearance by using these methods are of no consequence.

  1. The following precautions should be taken by ail personnel in these operations in order to prevent possible exposure to radiological hazards.

(a) Monitors must be present at all times during these operations.

(b) Do not remain on the ship beyond the tolerance hours set.

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(c) All personnel to be fully clothed at all times and to have a complete change of clothing and effective showers after each operation in which they are engaged. In this connection it is desirable to wear rubbers or boots and acid-resistant gauntlet type rubber gloves as these materials can be cleaned more easily. For instance, the fission products attach themselves more readily to leather, leather shoes, and leather gloves and are most difficult to remove even by laundering. All clothing worn must be laundered after each operation. All contaminated clothing should, wherever possible, be carefully washed out separate and apart from the ship’s regular laundry. For small amounts buckets and tubs can be utilized. Where the lots are so large as to make use of the ship’s regular laundry facilities mandatory, the inside of the equipment should afterwards be thoroughly scrubbed with an abrasive soap, such as Bon-Ami.

(d) During any hosing or washing down operations, personnel should be to windward of all such operations in order to prevent spraying and wetting themselves and any other personnel on board. Great care must be exercised in this respect, particularly until the ship begins to reach normal conditions.

(e) Upper vertical surfaces will present the greatest difficulties in decontamination and work on these surfaces must be controlled so as to prevent any spray or drippings falling on other personnel.

(f) Access passages to the most used and most necessary spaces in the ship should be decontaminated as soon as possible, in other words, set up definite routes of access which must be used by all personnel until general clearance is obtained.

(g) Determine as soon as practicable what space below decks are free from contamination or relatively free from contamination and require personnel to remain in these spaces at such times as they are resting or eating.

(h) It will be necessary to use K-rations at least in the beginning and these should be brough daily rather than in large supplies, and a space free from contamination used for keeping them until meal hour. Fresh water in canteens must be brought each day and handled in the same way.

(i) Determine as soon as practicable the condition of consumable supplies which may have been left on board and also condition of stored fresh water. Samples of suspected or definitely contaminated materials should be brought to the U. S. S. HAVEN properly tagged

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and identified for further examination. It is desirable that the fresh water from all storage tanks be so tested before using.

(j) All radiological dangers, when found, shall be marked clearly and if necessary roped off to keep personnel at a safe distance.

  1. It is expected that the decontamination procedures on all ships will be rather slow and certainly laborious. Only by careful attention to the above instructions can effective results be obtained in the least amount of time. The Director of Ship Material group and the Radiological Safety Section will cooperate so as to insure that no personnel are subjected to any over-exposure or other hazards. Monitors will be used until the entire ship has been decontaminated, inspected, and declared to be within safe tolerance limits for all personnel to reboard on a twenty-four (24) hour basis.
  2. The above instructions have been approved by the Radiological Safety Section.

T. A. SOLBERG.

cc:
CJTF-1
CTG 1.2
CTU 1.2.7
Colonel Warren
File

Enclosure (B) to Enclosure (F) to Director Ship Material Serial 00447

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OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3. 1946 UNCLASSIFIED DNA ltr, 21 Apr 1982 DIRECTOR OF SHIP MATERIAL TECHNICAL INSPECTION REPORT

1946-09-11 RECORD OF TELEPHONE CONVERSATION BETWEEN CAPTAIN W. G. WALSH, RADIOLOGICAL OFFICER, FOR JOINT TASK FORCE 1 AND CAPTAIN C. J. CATER, PLANNING OFFICER, SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 pp. 11-12

[Note all page numbers and notes will be enclosed in these brackets]

SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD Code No. (200) San Francisco 24, Calif.

RECORD OF TELEPHONE CONVERSATION BETWEEN CAPTAIN W. G. WALSH, RADIOLOGICAL OFFICER, FOR JOINT TASK FORCE 1 AND CAPTAIN C. J. CATER, PLANNING OFFICER, SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD, ON THIS DATE.
11 September 1946.

Captain Walsh stated that he had his apparatus ready to conduct the tests for sandblasting which he would like to conduct on 12 September starting at 9:00 A.M. Captain Cater stated the Yard would be ready. Continue reading “1946-09-11 RECORD OF TELEPHONE CONVERSATION BETWEEN CAPTAIN W. G. WALSH, RADIOLOGICAL OFFICER, FOR JOINT TASK FORCE 1 AND CAPTAIN C. J. CATER, PLANNING OFFICER, SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD”