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EAST BAY Toxic Waste Sites

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245 biological experiments on US citizens in cities and bases, Navy Biological Warfare Lab in SF Bay

Film of the Navy purposely contaminating 43 square miles of San Francisco with Serratia marcescens in 1950 and in color, at 2:25 “Naval Concepts of Chemical and Biological Warfare” Naval Concepts of Chemical and Biological Warfare (1952), Department of Defense Film Production, National Archives and Records Administration Catalogue # 428.MN.9170A, Declassified NND Authority # 64044

This article will be divide up in sections:

ABC Warfare Defense, Navy Training Course, Bureau of Naval Personnel, NAVPERS, 1960 10099 p 124
notice Alcatraz in the background and the headlands
  • Biological testing involving human subjects by the Department of Defense, 1977 hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, first session … March 8 and May 23, 1977
  • p 124
  • Biological testing involving human subjects by the Department of Defense, 1977 hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, first session … March 8 and May 23, 1977
  • p 125
  • Biological testing involving human subjects by the Department of Defense, 1977 hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, first session … March 8 and May 23, 1977
  • p 126
    Continue reading “245 biological experiments on US citizens in cities and bases, Navy Biological Warfare Lab in SF Bay”

    The Naval Biological Warfare Laboratory at Oakland Supply Center and the University of California Berkeley

    The Naval Biological Warfare Laboratory in Oakland run by the University of California Berkeley, conducted experiments in infectious disease, fungii, Chemical, Biological and Radiological research for the purpose of protecting Naval Personnel in combat and to develop vaccines and therapeutic methods to treat diseases. Also notice the diseases that affect livestock are an example of a biological weapon. It is this lab that lead the way to the Polio Vaccine and other major works in saving lives. The site is now being developed for real estate.

    The following diseases are featured in this publication – PUBLICATIONS of the Naval Biological Laboratory, School of Public Health University of California and Naval Medical Research Unit #1 Berkeley, California 1942-1965. Notice the articles on dispersing disease over large areas.

    Note many of these diseases were used in Biological warfare tests on the unsuspecting public all over the United States. See main article “245 biological experiments on US citizens in cities and bases, Navy Biological Warfare Lab in SF Bay.”

    Acute toxicity of alcohol

    Anthrax – Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus – Inactivated Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus Biovar anthracis – https://www.cdc.gov/anthrax/basics/index.html

    Bacteriophageshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493185/

    Botulism – Botulinal toxin and hemagglutinin

    Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus – The infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus belongs to the group of herpes viruses. It causes in cattle a severe disease predominantly in the upper respiratory tract. Morbidity rate is 100 percent
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/165129/

    Brucella melitensis – Exposure to most species of Brucella, such as those associated with certain types of animals, could potentially lead to infection.
    https://www.cdc.gov/brucellosis/clinicians/brucella-species.html

    Catarrhal fever
    https://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/malignant_catarrhal_fever.pdf

    Coccidioides immitis – fungus – coccidioidomycosis. Valley Fever
    https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/coccidioidomycosis/index.html

    Colorado tick fever virus
    https://www.cdc.gov/coloradotickfever/index.html

    Encephalomyocarditis viruses
    https://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/pdf/shic-factsheet-encephalomyocarditis-virus

    Hog Cholera Virus – Classical Swine Fever
    https://vetmed.iastate.edu/vdpam/FSVD/swine/index-diseases/classical-swine-fever

    Influenza

    Influenza B

    Klebsiella pneumoniae
    https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/27/2/20-4662_article

    Malleomyces pseudomallei – Bacterium Melioidosis is also called Whitmore disease, Vietnamese time bomb, Nightcliff gardener’s disease, morphia injector’s septicaemia, and paddy-field disease. https://dermnetnz.org/topics/melioidosis

    Murine hepatitis
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/ppmc/articles/PMC7095071/

    Pasteurella pestis – Plague Black Death

    Pneumonic plague in mice
    https://emergency.cdc.gov/agent/plague/faq.asp

    Polio
    https://www.cdc.gov/polio/what-is-polio/index.htm

    Serratia marcescens
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3592283/

    Shigella
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/shigella/symptoms-causes/syc-20377529

    Staphylococci – Staph
    https://medlineplus.gov/staphylococcalinfections.html

    Tubercle bacilli – Tuberculosis
    https://www.cdc.gov/tb/

    Vesicular exanthema of swine – eradicated in 1956

    Vesicular-stomatitis Virus – horses cattle and swine
    https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/animalhealth/animal-disease-information/cattle-disease-information/vesicular-stomatitis-info

    CONFIRMATORY RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE NAVAL BIOSCIENCES LABORATORY Region U.S. NAVAL SUPPLY CENTER, OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA, Radiological Site Assessment Program
    Manpower Education, Research, and Training Division, FINAL REPORT MAY 1988, P.R.COTTEN, at Nuclear Regulatory Commission Website
    Continue reading “The Naval Biological Warfare Laboratory at Oakland Supply Center and the University of California Berkeley”

    1946-09-20 6th Report, 20 September 1946 – INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Vessels from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval

    Citation: OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 pp. 33-41

    SIXTH REPORT

    6th Report, 20 September 1946 – INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Vessels from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval

    Shipyard begun on 5 September 1946.

    Work was begun yesterday to implement the decisions of the medical “strategy” board convened aboard the USS BENEVOLENCE on the 18th.

    In advance of one of the measures decided upon (flushing with fresh water of the Salt Water Systems of the BENEVOLENCE and HENRICO) a careful check was being made of the Salt Water Lines to insure that proper isolation of sections being worked on at present would exist, and as a corollary, to obtain a maximum flushing effect with only portions of the felt Water system available. All Salt Water pumps were ordered inoperable (i.e. electric pumps are to be disconnected, steam driven pumps to have valves locked).

    The decision to conduct a burning test on sections of hot Firemain piping containing considerable marine growth (a top priority job) was implemented yesterday by the selection of sections of pipe from the LAFFEY and BOTTINEAU (Copper-nickel and steel respectively). Dr. Chadbourn, after monitoring the piping, selected the Shipfitters Shop aboard the LAFFEY for the test, and took samples while the burning was being done, RBA equipment was used by the burner and Dr. Chadbourn.

    The, senior monitor, Lt. Comdr. Skow, took readings on all three evaporators of the BENEVOLENCE in preparation for the injection of Hydrochloric Acid (1 normal) which will be started this morning. The evaporator room, because of its difficulty of access, for pumps, acid barrels etc. has required considerable effort to prepare. The readings of the evaporator scale are now said to be 5 times tolerance (and hence exposure should not exceed 4-1/2 hours) not 2 times as stated in the fifth report.

    BENEVOLENCE crew men who on the evening of 18 September brushed the scale from the evaporators were warned by Dr. Skow to take longer on similar jobs in the future, as due to their haste large amounts of highly active scale were deposited on piping and floor plates beneath the evaporators. Dr. Skow monitored the crew members yesterday afternoon to determine if they had acquired any radioactivity in their shoes, clothing, under fingernails etc. No activity was found. Continue reading “1946-09-20 6th Report, 20 September 1946 – INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Vessels from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval”

    5th. Report, INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Vessels from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard begun 5 September 1946.

    Citation: OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 pp. 22-32

    FIFTH REPORT.
    5th. Report, INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Vessels from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard begun 5 September 1946.

    Progress and further developments In the experiments described in previous reports:

    Flashing (with fresh water) of the Firemain section on the LAFFEY which had been treated with pH 6 solution continued through the night of 17 September and was secured early in the morning of the 16th. The blanked off ends were opened up and drippings were collected and put in an add barrel. Photographs were taken of the end sections of the piping, showing the work of the solution in removing marine growth. The results can be summed up by saying that the pH 6 solution was not particularly effective ta removing marine growth, although it is estimated that 90% of the radioactivity was removed.

    The second phase of acid circulation in the Firemain forward on the LAFFEY was stepped at 0205 Wednesday, 18 September. Flushing was begun at 0215 and at 0300 the line, contain lug-fresh water, was secured. Samples of acid concentration were taken at intervals and a small reduction at .30 occurred. (1.08 to .79) It is estimated that the acid treatment removed 100% of marine growth and scale, and reduced radioactivity about 98%. Precise figures on the decrease in radioactivity of the acid solution between the first phase and the second phase as well as the monitoring of the piping after the decontaminating solution had been removed are contained in a report by the monitor, Dr. Chadbourn, to Capt. Walsh (MC) who is in charge of the experiments. Continue reading “5th. Report, INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Vessels from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard begun 5 September 1946.”

    1946-09-18 4th Report INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY Of Vessels from Bikini At the San Francisco Naval Shipyard Begun on 5 September 1946

    Citation: OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 pp. 20-21

    4th Report

    18 September 1946

    INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY Of Vessels from Bikini At the San Francisco Naval Shipyard
    Begun on 5 September 1946

    Yesterday morning aboard the LAFFEY one experiment in decontaminating salt water piping was concluded and another begun.  The experiment just concluded awaits laboratory testing before any results are known.

    The section of Firemain which had been pumped full of pH 6.0 solution (Acetic Acid and Ammonium Hydroxide) on Saturday, 14 September at 1100, was blown out at 1100 yesterday. An air hose was attached to one end of the Firemain and a hose led from the other end to a steel barrel up on the main deck, and the Firemain was blown clear. The contents of the barrel were monitored and showed radioactive emission as heavy as had previously been found in the Firemain on Saturday (.010) which would appear to indicate that the decontaminating solution had brought a considerable portion of the radioactive particles out with it. The barrel of radioactive solution was hoisted overboard, using a quaywall crane, onto a truck and when taken to the Industrial laboratory to be held there until arrangements are made for disposal. One quart of the solution was taken by Dr. Scott for a laboratory assay. After the Firemain had been blown clear of the solution, the air service was disconnected and a fresh water hose connected to the Firemain. The hose at the outlet end was led to a second barrel for examination of the first amount of flushing water. This water was found to be practically free of emission, so on the advice of Dr. Scott the discharge hose was led into the bay and flushing operations were scheduled to continue overnight. The flushing operation was begun at 1330. The leading man of X-56 who was holding the hose in the barrel when the radioactive solution was being blown from the firemain received spray and some of the liquid on his bare hands. He was advised to wash it off immediately. Continue reading “1946-09-18 4th Report INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY Of Vessels from Bikini At the San Francisco Naval Shipyard Begun on 5 September 1946”

    1946-09-16 SECOND REPORT INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Ships from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard

    Citation: OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 pp. 13-18

    [Page 13] 
    COMMANDER’S OFFICE
    SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD
    SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA
    11 September 1946

    NAVAL SHIPYARD NOTICE No, 244-46

    Sub: Vessels Arriving from Bikini – Instructions Governing Special Tests.
    1.            The following instructions will govern relative to the special teats to be conducted by the San Francisco Naval Shipyard on ships employed in the Bikini operation:
    A. Planning

    1. Procure funds and originate Job Orders.
    2. Follow up work procedures developed, smoothing same out, and put into such form as may be promulgated to other activities.
    3. Compile all data necessary for the development of such reports as may be required from time to time.

    B. Production

    1. Develop work procedures in accordance with existing and subsequent instructions.2. See to it that ships have radiological, clearance when they enter yard.

    C. Industrial Relations
    1. In consultation With Production, disseminate instructions relative to safety precautions.

    J. W. FOWLER
    Commodore, USN
    Commander

    DJBT: CO, OH, OF, CF

    SECRET

    Page 13
    [Page 14 posted]

    REPORT NO. 2
    EXPERIMENTAL WORK, SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD
    SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.

    SECOND REPORT 16 September 1946 – INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Ships from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard starting 5 September 1946. Continue reading “1946-09-16 SECOND REPORT INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Ships from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard”

    Pittsburg California Radiation Experiments, spreading radioactive sand onto barracks, lawns and streets of the former Camp Stoneman Base to train Sailors how to clean up after an atomic strike.

    This article will be added onto as I post the supporting links. It is a huge story explaining how they spread radioactive contaminant how they mixed it using radioactive materials to create a situation where the radiation levels were at 10,000 rads per hour to simulate the effect of one hour after a nuclear blast.

    Aerial view of Camp Stoneman on October 11, 1947 US Army From the National Archives Records Administration, College Park, Maryland, Cartographic Division, for the two aerials.
    Stoneman II Test of Reclamation Performance Volume III performance Characteristics of Dry Decontamination Procedures; Research and Development Technical Report USRNDL – TR-336 6 June 1959, Figure A-1, P. 60

    The problem here, is that the radiation levels were set artificially to be extremely high requiring crews to shift every few minutes in order to clean up the site but if you look at the maps, the areas involved are enormous. So the number of crews necessary to clean the site are in the hundreds. These tests were national events encompassing military personnel from many different services. Continue reading “Pittsburg California Radiation Experiments, spreading radioactive sand onto barracks, lawns and streets of the former Camp Stoneman Base to train Sailors how to clean up after an atomic strike.”

    Plutonium injections – Human Radiation Experiments at UC Berkeley, UC San Francisco by Joseph Hamilton and Robert Stone

    Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments
    Final Report
    October 1995
    U.S. Government Printing Office
    pp. 249-257
    http://www.archive.org/details/advisorycommitte00unit

    Official record from the 1995 Human Radiation Experiments Hearings in the US Congress detailing the Plutonium Injections by Dr. Joseph Hamilton and Dr Robert Stone, of the University of California Berkeley who conducted Plutonium injection experiments on unsuspecting victims in San Francisco at UC San Francisco and at the Chinese Hospital in San Francisco at the same time they were consulting on the cleaning of ships at Navy Bases all across the Pacific to clean ships used in the 1946 atomic Tests at Bikini Atoll. Dr. Hamilton would go onto set the safe level of radiation exposure used by the US Navy in radiation test well into the 1960s in the Bay Area. The problem being they were only concerned with preventing radiation sickness and not the long term effects of exposure to radiation. This resulted in not only their own deaths but countless tens of thousands of people being exposed to nuclear radiation needlessly to this very day! The Liability of UC Berkeley in this crime against humanity is off the charts! Continue reading “Plutonium injections – Human Radiation Experiments at UC Berkeley, UC San Francisco by Joseph Hamilton and Robert Stone”

    1946-09-16 Submarine Barracks at Hunters Point Shipyard contaminated by use as decontamination centers for workers at Shipyard to clean ships used in atomic tests.

    Citation: OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 pp. 14-18

    Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

    [Submarine Barracks at Hunters Point Shipyard now used as commercial space and was the ironically the site office of Lennar Builders were used for decontamination of shipyard workers who scraped and sandblasted the ships from the Atomic Tests. These buildings were used by the workers to clean off by showering off the plutonium and other radioactive elements and may be some of the most contaminated buildings on the site. The Hot Cell where they stored nuclear materials in lead lined chambers and maybe the storage of radioactive waste all over the shipyard may have more contamination. These are also where the workers ate their lunches while in contaminated uniforms.

    Building 103 which still stands and is directly over the fence from the Artists buildings is referenced directly in this report but the decontamination centers soon expanded to all of the submarine barracks as the ranks of the personnel increased.]

    Google Map

    REPORT NO. 2

    EXPERIMENTAL WORK, SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD

    SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.

    SECOND REPORT 16 September 1946 – INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Ships from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard starting 5 September 1946. Continue reading “1946-09-16 Submarine Barracks at Hunters Point Shipyard contaminated by use as decontamination centers for workers at Shipyard to clean ships used in atomic tests.”