1946-09-20 6th Report, 20 September 1946 – INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Vessels from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval

Citation: OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 pp. 33-41

SIXTH REPORT

6th Report, 20 September 1946 – INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Vessels from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval

Shipyard begun on 5 September 1946.

Work was begun yesterday to implement the decisions of the medical “strategy” board convened aboard the USS BENEVOLENCE on the 18th.

In advance of one of the measures decided upon (flushing with fresh water of the Salt Water Systems of the BENEVOLENCE and HENRICO) a careful check was being made of the Salt Water Lines to insure that proper isolation of sections being worked on at present would exist, and as a corollary, to obtain a maximum flushing effect with only portions of the felt Water system available. All Salt Water pumps were ordered inoperable (i.e. electric pumps are to be disconnected, steam driven pumps to have valves locked).

The decision to conduct a burning test on sections of hot Firemain piping containing considerable marine growth (a top priority job) was implemented yesterday by the selection of sections of pipe from the LAFFEY and BOTTINEAU (Copper-nickel and steel respectively). Dr. Chadbourn, after monitoring the piping, selected the Shipfitters Shop aboard the LAFFEY for the test, and took samples while the burning was being done, RBA equipment was used by the burner and Dr. Chadbourn.

The, senior monitor, Lt. Comdr. Skow, took readings on all three evaporators of the BENEVOLENCE in preparation for the injection of Hydrochloric Acid (1 normal) which will be started this morning. The evaporator room, because of its difficulty of access, for pumps, acid barrels etc. has required considerable effort to prepare. The readings of the evaporator scale are now said to be 5 times tolerance (and hence exposure should not exceed 4-1/2 hours) not 2 times as stated in the fifth report.

BENEVOLENCE crew men who on the evening of 18 September brushed the scale from the evaporators were warned by Dr. Skow to take longer on similar jobs in the future, as due to their haste large amounts of highly active scale were deposited on piping and floor plates beneath the evaporators. Dr. Skow monitored the crew members yesterday afternoon to determine if they had acquired any radioactivity in their shoes, clothing, under fingernails etc. No activity was found. Continue reading “1946-09-20 6th Report, 20 September 1946 – INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Vessels from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval”

5th. Report, INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Vessels from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard begun 5 September 1946.

Citation: OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 pp. 22-32

FIFTH REPORT.
5th. Report, INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Vessels from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard begun 5 September 1946.

Progress and further developments In the experiments described in previous reports:

Flashing (with fresh water) of the Firemain section on the LAFFEY which had been treated with pH 6 solution continued through the night of 17 September and was secured early in the morning of the 16th. The blanked off ends were opened up and drippings were collected and put in an add barrel. Photographs were taken of the end sections of the piping, showing the work of the solution in removing marine growth. The results can be summed up by saying that the pH 6 solution was not particularly effective ta removing marine growth, although it is estimated that 90% of the radioactivity was removed.

The second phase of acid circulation in the Firemain forward on the LAFFEY was stepped at 0205 Wednesday, 18 September. Flushing was begun at 0215 and at 0300 the line, contain lug-fresh water, was secured. Samples of acid concentration were taken at intervals and a small reduction at .30 occurred. (1.08 to .79) It is estimated that the acid treatment removed 100% of marine growth and scale, and reduced radioactivity about 98%. Precise figures on the decrease in radioactivity of the acid solution between the first phase and the second phase as well as the monitoring of the piping after the decontaminating solution had been removed are contained in a report by the monitor, Dr. Chadbourn, to Capt. Walsh (MC) who is in charge of the experiments. Continue reading “5th. Report, INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Vessels from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard begun 5 September 1946.”

1946-09-18 4th Report INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY Of Vessels from Bikini At the San Francisco Naval Shipyard Begun on 5 September 1946

Citation: OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 pp. 20-21

4th Report

18 September 1946

INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY Of Vessels from Bikini At the San Francisco Naval Shipyard
Begun on 5 September 1946

Yesterday morning aboard the LAFFEY one experiment in decontaminating salt water piping was concluded and another begun.  The experiment just concluded awaits laboratory testing before any results are known.

The section of Firemain which had been pumped full of pH 6.0 solution (Acetic Acid and Ammonium Hydroxide) on Saturday, 14 September at 1100, was blown out at 1100 yesterday. An air hose was attached to one end of the Firemain and a hose led from the other end to a steel barrel up on the main deck, and the Firemain was blown clear. The contents of the barrel were monitored and showed radioactive emission as heavy as had previously been found in the Firemain on Saturday (.010) which would appear to indicate that the decontaminating solution had brought a considerable portion of the radioactive particles out with it. The barrel of radioactive solution was hoisted overboard, using a quaywall crane, onto a truck and when taken to the Industrial laboratory to be held there until arrangements are made for disposal. One quart of the solution was taken by Dr. Scott for a laboratory assay. After the Firemain had been blown clear of the solution, the air service was disconnected and a fresh water hose connected to the Firemain. The hose at the outlet end was led to a second barrel for examination of the first amount of flushing water. This water was found to be practically free of emission, so on the advice of Dr. Scott the discharge hose was led into the bay and flushing operations were scheduled to continue overnight. The flushing operation was begun at 1330. The leading man of X-56 who was holding the hose in the barrel when the radioactive solution was being blown from the firemain received spray and some of the liquid on his bare hands. He was advised to wash it off immediately. Continue reading “1946-09-18 4th Report INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY Of Vessels from Bikini At the San Francisco Naval Shipyard Begun on 5 September 1946”

1946-09-16 SECOND REPORT INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Ships from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard

Citation: OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 pp. 13-18

[Page 13] 
COMMANDER’S OFFICE
SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD
SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA
11 September 1946

NAVAL SHIPYARD NOTICE No, 244-46

Sub: Vessels Arriving from Bikini – Instructions Governing Special Tests.
1.            The following instructions will govern relative to the special teats to be conducted by the San Francisco Naval Shipyard on ships employed in the Bikini operation:
A. Planning

1. Procure funds and originate Job Orders.
2. Follow up work procedures developed, smoothing same out, and put into such form as may be promulgated to other activities.
3. Compile all data necessary for the development of such reports as may be required from time to time.

B. Production

1. Develop work procedures in accordance with existing and subsequent instructions.2. See to it that ships have radiological, clearance when they enter yard.

C. Industrial Relations
1. In consultation With Production, disseminate instructions relative to safety precautions.

J. W. FOWLER
Commodore, USN
Commander

DJBT: CO, OH, OF, CF

SECRET

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REPORT NO. 2
EXPERIMENTAL WORK, SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.

SECOND REPORT 16 September 1946 – INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Ships from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard starting 5 September 1946. Continue reading “1946-09-16 SECOND REPORT INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Ships from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard”

Pittsburg California Radiation Experiments, spreading radioactive sand onto barracks, lawns and streets of the former Camp Stoneman Base to train Sailors how to clean up after an atomic strike.

This article will be added onto as I post the supporting links. It is a huge story explaining how they spread radioactive contaminant how they mixed it using radioactive materials to create a situation where the radiation levels were at 10,000 rads per hour to simulate the effect of one hour after a nuclear blast.

Aerial view of Camp Stoneman on October 11, 1947 US Army From the National Archives Records Administration, College Park, Maryland, Cartographic Division, for the two aerials.
Stoneman II Test of Reclamation Performance Volume III performance Characteristics of Dry Decontamination Procedures; Research and Development Technical Report USRNDL – TR-336 6 June 1959, Figure A-1, P. 60

The problem here, is that the radiation levels were set artificially to be extremely high requiring crews to shift every few minutes in order to clean up the site but if you look at the maps, the areas involved are enormous. So the number of crews necessary to clean the site are in the hundreds. These tests were national events encompassing military personnel from many different services. Continue reading “Pittsburg California Radiation Experiments, spreading radioactive sand onto barracks, lawns and streets of the former Camp Stoneman Base to train Sailors how to clean up after an atomic strike.”

Plutonium injections – Human Radiation Experiments at UC Berkeley, UC San Francisco by Joseph Hamilton and Robert Stone

Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments
Final Report
October 1995
U.S. Government Printing Office
pp. 249-257
http://www.archive.org/details/advisorycommitte00unit

Official record from the 1995 Human Radiation Experiments Hearings in the US Congress detailing the Plutonium Injections by Dr. Joseph Hamilton and Dr Robert Stone, of the University of California Berkeley who conducted Plutonium injection experiments on unsuspecting victims in San Francisco at UC San Francisco and at the Chinese Hospital in San Francisco at the same time they were consulting on the cleaning of ships at Navy Bases all across the Pacific to clean ships used in the 1946 atomic Tests at Bikini Atoll. Dr. Hamilton would go onto set the safe level of radiation exposure used by the US Navy in radiation test well into the 1960s in the Bay Area. The problem being they were only concerned with preventing radiation sickness and not the long term effects of exposure to radiation. This resulted in not only their own deaths but countless tens of thousands of people being exposed to nuclear radiation needlessly to this very day! The Liability of UC Berkeley in this crime against humanity is off the charts! Continue reading “Plutonium injections – Human Radiation Experiments at UC Berkeley, UC San Francisco by Joseph Hamilton and Robert Stone”

1946-09-16 Submarine Barracks at Hunters Point Shipyard contaminated by use as decontamination centers for workers at Shipyard to clean ships used in atomic tests.

Citation: OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 pp. 14-18

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

[Submarine Barracks at Hunters Point Shipyard now used as commercial space and was the ironically the site office of Lennar Builders were used for decontamination of shipyard workers who scraped and sandblasted the ships from the Atomic Tests. These buildings were used by the workers to clean off by showering off the plutonium and other radioactive elements and may be some of the most contaminated buildings on the site. The Hot Cell where they stored nuclear materials in lead lined chambers and maybe the storage of radioactive waste all over the shipyard may have more contamination. These are also where the workers ate their lunches while in contaminated uniforms.

Building 103 which still stands and is directly over the fence from the Artists buildings is referenced directly in this report but the decontamination centers soon expanded to all of the submarine barracks as the ranks of the personnel increased.]

Google Map

REPORT NO. 2

EXPERIMENTAL WORK, SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.

SECOND REPORT 16 September 1946 – INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Ships from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard starting 5 September 1946. Continue reading “1946-09-16 Submarine Barracks at Hunters Point Shipyard contaminated by use as decontamination centers for workers at Shipyard to clean ships used in atomic tests.”

1946-10-01 Meeting discussing the dumping of radioactive Sand into SF Bay, Puget Sound, LA, San Diego, Pearl Harbor, Norfolk etc.

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

Citation: DTIC AD0473908: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3 pp. 61-73

REPORT OF CONFERENCE
San Francisco Naval Shipyard
Meeting at 1100, 1 October 1946.
Present were:
Dr. F. H. Rodenbaugh
Dr. K. 3. Scott
Capt. W. E. Walsh (MC) USN
Capt. Wynn, USN
Capt. Lemler, USN
Capt. Maxwell, USN
Lt. Comdr. Turnbaugh, USN
Lt. Comdr. Skow, USN
Lt. Chadbourn (MC) USN
Lt. (jg) Morton (MC) USN
Lt. Howell, USNR
Mr. Hammond
Mr. Gordon
Comdr. Hoffman

SECRET

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SECRET

Maxwell: We called this conference together to make certain recommendations to’ BuShips on the means and methods to decontaminate salt water piping based on experiments conducted at this Yard – using ammonium citrate solution and muriatic acid solution. We found that muriatic acid removes all the foreign matter and activity. It does a complete job. The ammonium citrate does a similar job to a lesser extent – about 90% of the activity is removed. We found a medicine that can be used – it may not be the best, etc.

Dr. Scott and Dr. Rodenbaugh, are you in a position to give us a few answers that we are after – when should we use this medicine – what standard should we use – when should we use the acid and when should we use the citrate thru the salt water system?

Rodenbaugh: You mean as to how much radiation you have in the systems? You may ask me from a medical point of view, but ask Dr. Scott about the physical aspects. Continue reading “1946-10-01 Meeting discussing the dumping of radioactive Sand into SF Bay, Puget Sound, LA, San Diego, Pearl Harbor, Norfolk etc.”

1946-09-10 Cleaning Salt Water Systems; dumping radiation directly into into San Francisco Bay

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

Citation: DTIC AD0473908: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3 pp. 9-10

[Note all page numbers and notes will be enclosed in these brackets]

DISTRICT MEDICAL OFFICE TWELFTH NAVAL DISTRICT SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA
10 September 1946
CONFIDENTIAL MEMORANDUM

To: Commander, San Francisco Naval Shipyard

Subj: Cleaning Salt Water Systems

  1. The following test procedure to be used on the cleaning of non-target ships; USS LAFFEY, USS BARTON, and any other ship participating in the Bikini operations. Accurate records are to be kept of all operations and a copy forwarded by Air Mail Special Delivery to Rear Admiral T.A. Solberg, Code 180, BuShips. A copy will also be furnished to Captain W. E. Walsh, USN, District Medical Office, 50 Fell Street, San Francisco, California.
  2. (a) A solution of citrate acid and ammonium hydroxide for cleaning of salt water piping systems (strength to be determined) is to be entered into the system on the out-board leg of the suction side of the suction pump. All outlets except one of the crew’s water closets are to be closed. This one outlet is to allow only a minimum flow.
    Then at each of the-other outlets of the system, water is to be drawn off until presence of the citrate acid and ammonium hydroxide solution is definitely found to be in that section of piping. Flow through the system is to be continuous co the one open 1 outlet. The citrate acid and ammonium hydroxide solution is to be continuously entered into the system from the outboard side of the suction pumps, (overflow from the outlet may be allowed to enter the harbor). Approximate time of Operation to be one hour.

    [Later work determined that radiation was concentrated in the acid solution and therefore the overflow was radioactive and dumped into the Bay at Hunters Point Shipyard]

    (b) Second step of the cleaning operation is to completely flush out the entire system with fresh water and concentration of standard bailer compound, one (1) pound to twenty (20) gallons of water.
    (c) Continuous records of the readings of the system are to be kept.

SECRET

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3. (a) Samples of copper-nickel and iron piping of salt water systems are to be tested in three different concentrations of hydrochloric acid solutions of one half normal, three-quarters normal, and one normal. The pipes samples are to be tested in small sections of about three inches in length.
(b) Similar samples are to be forwarded to Dr. Scott, University of California.[Dr. K.G. Scott, UC Berkeley Radiation Laboratory]
(c) The object of these tests is-to determine the effect of these various solutions on the cleaning marine growth, rust and other foreign matter on the inside of the pipes. Quantitative measurements of the marine growth, rust and other foreign matter on the interior of the pipe should be made before and during the testing.

  1. (a) Upon the first cleaning of heat transfer units, principally evaporators, or distilling plants. On such heat transfer equipment where scale is formed by deposits from salt water systems, the scale should be cleaned as much as possible by using thermal shock treatment.
    (b) All scale that has cracked off the piping shall be thoroughly “removed, using standard safety precautions.
    (c) A solution of muriatic acid shall then be used to further complete the removal of scale.
    (d) A monitor shall be present on opening up the heat exchange unit at all times when following the above procedure.
    (e) All scale removed should be segregated and dumped at sea.
  2. Cleaning of the ship’s side in drydock shall be accomplished in the following manner:
    (a) The ship’s side shall be kept moist and marine growth shall be scraped off. The growth shall be kept wet while scraping down. All materials scraped from the side of the ship shall be cleaned from the drydock and segregated. The segregated material shall be dumped at sea.
    (b) Wet sandblasting, using standard equipment, is to be then used for removing the remainder of paint on the hull. The sand is also to be dumped at sea.

T. A. SOLBERG
Rear Admiral, USN.

V W. S. MAXWELL Captain, USN
By direction

SECRET

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Source: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON-TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 2 , DNA ltr, 21 Apr 1982, THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED, DIRECTOR OF SHIPTECHNICAL INSPECTION REPORT. Radiological Decontamination of Target and Non-Target Vessels, VOLUME 2 OF 3.

 

1946-09-05 – Report of INSPECTION FOR RADIOACTIVITY of the USS LAFFEY (DD724) at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

Citation: OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 pp. 5-7

[Note all page numbers and notes will be enclosed in these brackets]

[Page5]

REPORT. H.Q, 1

EXPERIMENTAL WORK, SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.

Report of INSPECTION FOR RADIOACTIVITY of the USS LAFFEY (DD724) at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard, 5 September 1946

The USS LAFFEY DD724 was subjected to an inspection for radioactivity on 5 September 1946 at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard. The inspection, witnessed by representatives of the 12th Naval District and the Western Sea Frontier, was conducted under the supervision of Captain W. E. Walsh (MC) USN. Other members-of the inspecting party were: Continue reading “1946-09-05 – Report of INSPECTION FOR RADIOACTIVITY of the USS LAFFEY (DD724) at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard”