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Apple is located on GE Intersil Superfund site that received radiological isotope Kr 85 from the DOE


“List of DOE Radioisotope Customers w/Summary of Radioisotope Shipments,FY85.”
D. A. Baker
08/31/1986
Prepared for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RLO 1830

Page 2.4 Item number 53.
G. E. Intersil Inc.
10710 North Tantau Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014


Given that the Superfund site is the G. E. Intersil site, this associates it with the San Jose G. E. nuclear reactor assembly plant where they were assembling portable nuclear reactors for the US Army, a project started in the mid 1950s when radiological contamination levels were very relaxed and when they were strengthened in 1959 to 1/3 of what they were before, so all of these reactors were too hot for safe use. The entire program was scrapped by 1965. But this program required a large amount of new electronics and this brought about the beginnings of Silicon Valley.

Unfortunately for the people of San Jose they were dumping waste directly into the sewer system using 1955 standards which are nuclear accidents today. That is the problem with nuclear radiation, the clean up standards of the past, including the most recent past have been less and less radiation so that a site cleaned up 25 years ago is an accident today!

These were portable nuclear reactors that you could put on a truck, a transport plane, a ship or a train and bring it to a military site that had a deep pool with all of the necessary hook ups to set up a nuclear reactor to power the base or for colleges and universities. These reactors had no meaningful shields and were a serious radiological hazard to modern specifications.

San Jose CA – GE Nuclear Fuel Processing Facility at The Plant Shopping Center

There were several other portable nuclear reactor plants in the Bay Area, two I featured in this article Two nuclear reactors sites, 369 Whisman Road Mountainview (now Google) and San Ramon CA where the EPA should also look into assessing the damage to the environment and the people who now live within range of those reactor sites. The 369 Whisman Road reactor site had a high curb surrounding the building to contain the radioactive waste!

The EPA has regulations on conducting radiological surveys for sites and basically everything within 200 feet of a site is considered on the site, that goes for chemical contamination as well as radiological. DTSC has interpreted this to mean the property lines of toxic waste sites but the EPA has different rules. Then there is the distance from the contamination to a quarter of a mile is considered a near neighbor and the distance from a quarter of a mile to a mile is also a near neighbor but with a different set of calculations. The danger is evaluated based on the population near a site so in the case of Apple, this could be a big problem for them. How many people work in their Wheel?

The Federal Law, 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 300 – The Hazard Ranking System which is used to determine if a site is subject to Superfund status, the range of contamination goes out to various distances from the exact contamination site.

It depends on what happened to the Kr 85 which is a Byproduct Material, meaning it came out of a nuclear reactor and cannot be dumped in low level radiation facilities but would have to be disposed of most likely in the Nevada Test Site.

In order to use an isotope like this, the facility would require a hot cell which is a device or room to store radiological isotopes usually with mechanical hands to remove the isotope from the container and use it in whatever industrial process GE was using at the time and the necessary Geiger counter device to measure the Beta radiation from this isotope. It has a half life of 10 years so its still hot. Some hot cells are portable and look like aquariums or those isolated rooms with hands you see in movies or TV shows.

I outline the distances using San Francisco as an example showing the ranges of contamination that can result from Chemical, Biological and Radiological contamination in this article:
“Downtown San Francisco within Contamination Range of Treasure Island Atomic, Biological and Chemical Warfare training sites”

If the radiation was used on a device that has since decomposed in the soil, then you have the larger ranges of water and air contamination that can go out 4 miles from the site.

The Question is, does the EPA know that the isotope was used on the site. Given the other sites in the Bay Area I would give my opinion as to say no, but this will have to be looked into.

If the Nuclear Regulatory Commission had done its job, then there would be a set of inspections and a series of surveys to confirm the radiological isotopes were disposed of property and how they were used.




Featured

Two nuclear reactors sites, 369 Whisman Road Mountainview (now Google) and San Ramon CA

siteSUMMARY REPORT ON THE HAZARDS OF THE UTR TEST REACTOR
ATL Job 5164 ATL-D-619 7 June 1961
Page 46

SUMMARY REPORT ON THE HAZARDS
OF THE UTR TEST REACTOR
ATL Job 5164
ATL-D-619
7 June 1961

Google currently occupies the location where American Standard built portable nuclear reactors that were sent overseas in trade shows for the Atomic Energy Commission and for colleges and universities. The AEC shut down the facility because it was located in a densely populated area and given the accidents from these reactors and that the location had no shielding or even containment for the radioactive gasses and radioactive water, it was decided to pull the plug on the reactors. They had two reactors on site and built these reactors for other entities:

Iowa State University
Virginia Polytechnic Institute / North Carolina State college
Australia (Atomic Energy Commission)
Japan (Kinki University) Osaka
Japan (Tokai University)

SUMMARY REPORT ON THE HAZARDS OF THE UTR TEST REACTOR
ATL Job 5164 ATL-D-619 7 June 1961
Page 27

From the report page 6:

“B. Reactor Building
The reactor will be housed in an existing 20′ x 32′ x 14′ eave height steel frame
reactor building. The building is supported on a reinforced concrete foundation and has corrugated steel walls and roof and a concrete floor sealed with Amercoat. A concrete curb around the base of the building will prevent run off of radioactive water. Gas-tight construction has not been provided. Entry to the building is provided by two sliding doors, which may be locked with a padlock. A stairway provides access to the top of the reactor. A one-ton electric hoist is available for removing the concrete closures from the reactor”

Note the curb around the building to prevent run off of radioactive water and the padlock on the door for security. Remember this is for two nuclear reactors.

These are the concentric circles that the Atomic Energy Commission requires for safety. If there was an accident everyone within range would have to be permanently evacuated. page 44

This reactor type was based on the Argonne reactor which had some serious defects causing a melt down.

Ruzich, K. C.., Sturm, W. J.. Hazard Summary Report for the Argonne AGN-201 Reactor. United States: Argonne National Laboratory, 1962.

When the (Atomic Energy Commission changed the safe levels of radiation to the lower number in 1959, these reactors suddenly had a problem, they were over the limits and so shielding had to be devised to keep them running. So American Standard sent the following letter to the Atomic Energy Commission to get them to change their rules, otherwise they were out of business.
Guess what, it didn’t work, they are out of business.

Comment of E. Wilson, Advanced Technology Labs, to H. Price, on proposed rulemaking concerning environmental factors to be considered in site evaluation for power and test reactors. 06/26/1959

The portable nuclear reactors were capable of being placed on a truck or train car and moved to any location where a deep pool of water with the necessary hook ups would be arranged so they just lower the reactor into the pool, connect it to the system and you are done.

You would think that something like this would be noticeable in the State of California or even the EPA but for some strange reason, they do not seem to know anything about this. The Atomic Energy Commission knew about it. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission knows about it.

There is a disconnect between the NRC, Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the EPA even though the EPA is registered with the NRC for its own radiation detection equipment and it has its own NRC license.

San Ramon Nuclear Reactors were being built 10 at a time

Another location as the Aerojet-General Nucleonics Nuclear Reactor plant in what is now downtown San Ramon which at any one time was building 10 portable nuclear reactors.

Aerojet Radiography and Research Reactor Hazards Summary Report, September 1964 (Redacted Version)
page 114 of 123 in the PDF file

In the above map:

1) An AGN-201 reactor, currently opera ting at 20 w, used for instrument and dosimeter calibrations and for research work in connection with AGN’s fission-chemistry development programs.
2) A hot cell with high-density concrete walls 20 in. thick. And high-density glass viewing windows, also 20 in. thick, designed to handle specimens up to 300 curies at 1 Mev
3) Chemistry laboratories, including two radiochemical laboratories, two wet chemical laboratories, a sample preparation laboratory, and storerooms
4) A specialized experimental laboratory for AGN’s fission-chemistry programs, used for UO2 slurry circulation, sample vessel assembly, loading, and unloading, safety tests, and sample analysis

5) A metallurgical and material laboratory for evaluation of high temperature materials and nuclear applications of both fueled and unfueled materials
6) A liquid metals Laboratory, including two liquid metal capsule corrosion test facilities, a boiling and condensing heat transfer test facility for space system radiators and boilers, and a dynamic liquid metal corrosion loop test facility
7) An electronics development laboratory
8) A nuclear measurements laboratory with equipment for precision alpha, beta, and gamma counting

The main office building (2) contains engineering and administrative offices, drafting rooms, computer facilities, a document control center, and printing, photographic, and other supporting services. It includes special AEC and DOD restricted area, for work on classified projects.

The shops building (3) includes a general machine shop, a separate bay of 3000 sq ft for welding operations, specialized machine tool areas for the handling of radioactive materials, facilities for the fabrication, assembly, I maintenance, and calibration of instrumentation and electronic equipment, and supporting shop services.

The nuclear fuel fabrication facility (7) is used for ceramic fuel production, sealing and assembly of wire-spaced pins for elements, and preparation of fuel-loaded parts. It is equipped with dust-free assembly rooms, glove boxes, and special equipment for inspection, testing, analysis, and leak
detection. Fireproof vaults are provided for storage of plutonium and uranium.
The entire facility is a restricted area, and appropriate accountability and
health physics services are provided.

Other installations on the western side of the railroad tracks include a special radionuclide laboratory (14), cleaning and decontamination facilities, housing for pumps, generators, and air compressors, and special storage facilities for inflammable (5) and hazardous (9) materials.

To the east of the tracks, a new facility (51) for testing power conversion equipment and other rotating machinery was completed this year. The facility includes a high-bay assembly area, control room, test room, and special power sources and testing machinery. The concrete floor slab extends outside the building to provide a base for testing fully-assembled power conversion units for nuclear power plants.

A new physics laboratory (52) was recently completed to accommodate AGN’s expanding research in plasma physics and related fields. The laboratory houses various large magnetic-field power supplies, capacitor banks, vacuum chambers, von Ardenne and other ion sources, an energetic arc, microwave diagnostic equipment, and other special equipment for experimentation and analysis. The building is-300 ft from the site of the proposed AGNIR facility.

A new building (55) for a pulse power research facility is now under construction northeast of the new physics laboratory. The building will provide 650 sq ft of floor space for research and experimentation in the field of pulsed power production.

At the time the area was orchards wih very few people living within range of the site in the case of a nuclear accident. Unfortunately they used the city sewage for the release of radioactive water which would flow downstream through Walnut Hill and then all the way to Suisan Bay and given the safety levels of the times, this was a lot of radiation.

They built portable nuclear reactors for the following entities:

Catholic University of America
Oklahoma State University of Agriculture and Applied Science
University of Akron
Texas A&M
University of Utah
Argonne National Laboratory (AEC)
Colorado State University
University of California Berkeley
University of Delaware
Oregon State University
AGN 201-111 was operated in the commercial exhibit of the 1958 International Conference in Geneva prior to transfer to the University of Geneva
Switzerland (University of Basel)
Italy (University of Palermo)
U. S. Naval Post Graduate School (USN) – melted down but was contained; no explosion
National Naval Medical Center (USN)
William Marsh Rice University
University of Oklahoma
West Virginia University, College of Engineering
Aerojet-General Nucleonics (5 reactors) AGN 201 reactors
Aerojet-General Nucleonics (5 reactors) AGN 211 Reactors

Today the City of San Ramon parks its School Buses on the site. Google Map

The radioactively contaminated water from the site went into the sewer system of San Ramon and gets dumped into Suisun Bay through Walnut Hill. Unfortunately 1950’s standards for radiation were so dangerous that in 1959 they were cut to 1/3 of what they were in 1955 and this put the portable nuclear reactor business under as the effects of radiation became apparent and all of these reactors were emitting at least 7.5 mrems per hour when today the level of safety is 2 mrems per hour. Any amount above that number is a nuclear accident.

They also had issues with meltdowns and explosions. The Santa Susana reactors near Simi Valley built for NASA and satellites had three nuclear reactors melt down and at least one of them exploded making it the worst nuclear reactor disaster on record. People think Three Mile Island was bad, the reactor exploded and a radioactive cloud of Strontium 90 spread over the valley from the site into Simi Valley and across the hills to Los Angeles County to the River.

We nuked Antarctica

I think I should mention the nuclear reactor built by the Seabees at Port Humene in Antarctica melted down and exploded.

The Navy base at Port Humene is used by the Navy to conduct the radiation studies of Hunters Point Shipyard and Treasure Island. They were directly involved in the studies that purposely contaminated areas for testing.

The Reactor at McMurdo was cleaned up, the materials were sent to the Nevada Test Range for burial. But someone had to clean it up.

Treasure Island Hunters Point Shipyard ranked 25 worst site by the EPA

This is the original National Priorities list ranked by worst to first in classes. Treasure Island Hunters Point Annex is ranked in the 5th class, 25 on this list of names of sites. Note equal to the Savannah River Plant that has to this day, radioactive waste in barrels on the site. It is also worse than a Hanford site.

Fact Book: National Priorities List Under the Original Hazard Ranking System, 1981-1991, United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Emergency and Remedial Response. Washington, DC: Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1993. pp. 49-51
Continue reading “Treasure Island Hunters Point Shipyard ranked 25 worst site by the EPA”

GOOGLE – 1400 NORTH SHORELINE BOULEVARD (T10000006049)

Microsoft Word – Memo_WhiteStripes_sanitary_sewer p 12



Microsoft Word – Memo_WhiteStripes_sanitary_sewer p 10
Microsoft Word – Memo_WhiteStripes_sanitary_sewer p 11

The project is a redevelopment property within the Teledyne-Spectraphysics (T-S) plume with underlying groundwater probably impacted by the upgradient T-S source properties. The developer plans to construct the building wiht a vapor intrusion mitigation system (VIMS) and water barrier. Indoor air testing will be conducted to verify that the VIMS is working as designed.

Envirostor (State of California)

Geotracker Map

Google Map

POTENTIAL CONTAMINANTS OF CONCERN

DICHLOROETHENE (DCE), TRICHLOROETHYLENE (TCE), VINYL CHLORIDE 

 

5th. Report, INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Vessels from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard begun 5 September 1946.

Citation: OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 pp. 22-32

FIFTH REPORT.
5th. Report, INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Vessels from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard begun 5 September 1946.

Progress and further developments In the experiments described in previous reports:

Flashing (with fresh water) of the Firemain section on the LAFFEY which had been treated with pH 6 solution continued through the night of 17 September and was secured early in the morning of the 16th. The blanked off ends were opened up and drippings were collected and put in an add barrel. Photographs were taken of the end sections of the piping, showing the work of the solution in removing marine growth. The results can be summed up by saying that the pH 6 solution was not particularly effective ta removing marine growth, although it is estimated that 90% of the radioactivity was removed.

The second phase of acid circulation in the Firemain forward on the LAFFEY was stepped at 0205 Wednesday, 18 September. Flushing was begun at 0215 and at 0300 the line, contain lug-fresh water, was secured. Samples of acid concentration were taken at intervals and a small reduction at .30 occurred. (1.08 to .79) It is estimated that the acid treatment removed 100% of marine growth and scale, and reduced radioactivity about 98%. Precise figures on the decrease in radioactivity of the acid solution between the first phase and the second phase as well as the monitoring of the piping after the decontaminating solution had been removed are contained in a report by the monitor, Dr. Chadbourn, to Capt. Walsh (MC) who is in charge of the experiments. Continue reading “5th. Report, INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Vessels from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard begun 5 September 1946.”

1946-09-18 4th Report INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY Of Vessels from Bikini At the San Francisco Naval Shipyard Begun on 5 September 1946

Citation: OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 pp. 20-21

4th Report

18 September 1946

INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY Of Vessels from Bikini At the San Francisco Naval Shipyard
Begun on 5 September 1946

Yesterday morning aboard the LAFFEY one experiment in decontaminating salt water piping was concluded and another begun.  The experiment just concluded awaits laboratory testing before any results are known.

The section of Firemain which had been pumped full of pH 6.0 solution (Acetic Acid and Ammonium Hydroxide) on Saturday, 14 September at 1100, was blown out at 1100 yesterday. An air hose was attached to one end of the Firemain and a hose led from the other end to a steel barrel up on the main deck, and the Firemain was blown clear. The contents of the barrel were monitored and showed radioactive emission as heavy as had previously been found in the Firemain on Saturday (.010) which would appear to indicate that the decontaminating solution had brought a considerable portion of the radioactive particles out with it. The barrel of radioactive solution was hoisted overboard, using a quaywall crane, onto a truck and when taken to the Industrial laboratory to be held there until arrangements are made for disposal. One quart of the solution was taken by Dr. Scott for a laboratory assay. After the Firemain had been blown clear of the solution, the air service was disconnected and a fresh water hose connected to the Firemain. The hose at the outlet end was led to a second barrel for examination of the first amount of flushing water. This water was found to be practically free of emission, so on the advice of Dr. Scott the discharge hose was led into the bay and flushing operations were scheduled to continue overnight. The flushing operation was begun at 1330. The leading man of X-56 who was holding the hose in the barrel when the radioactive solution was being blown from the firemain received spray and some of the liquid on his bare hands. He was advised to wash it off immediately. Continue reading “1946-09-18 4th Report INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY Of Vessels from Bikini At the San Francisco Naval Shipyard Begun on 5 September 1946”

1946-09-16 SECOND REPORT INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Ships from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard

Citation: OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 pp. 13-18

[Page 13] 
COMMANDER’S OFFICE
SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD
SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA
11 September 1946

NAVAL SHIPYARD NOTICE No, 244-46

Sub: Vessels Arriving from Bikini – Instructions Governing Special Tests.
1.            The following instructions will govern relative to the special teats to be conducted by the San Francisco Naval Shipyard on ships employed in the Bikini operation:
A. Planning

1. Procure funds and originate Job Orders.
2. Follow up work procedures developed, smoothing same out, and put into such form as may be promulgated to other activities.
3. Compile all data necessary for the development of such reports as may be required from time to time.

B. Production

1. Develop work procedures in accordance with existing and subsequent instructions.2. See to it that ships have radiological, clearance when they enter yard.

C. Industrial Relations
1. In consultation With Production, disseminate instructions relative to safety precautions.

J. W. FOWLER
Commodore, USN
Commander

DJBT: CO, OH, OF, CF

SECRET

Page 13
[Page 14 posted]

REPORT NO. 2
EXPERIMENTAL WORK, SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.

SECOND REPORT 16 September 1946 – INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Ships from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard starting 5 September 1946. Continue reading “1946-09-16 SECOND REPORT INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Ships from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard”

The Berkeley Blast – 500 tons of Dynamite that blasted out the glass of San Francisco 8 miles away

“A witness near the California Powder Works reported seeing a huge column of white smoke shoot hundreds of feet into the sky seconds before he was knocked down and rendered senseless for several minutes.”

The disaster in Beirut was only a few days ago.

1869 Alfred Noble patented his invention Dynamite which is a safe method of using Nitroglycerin which had an unfortunate tendency to explode when subjected to a large shock. Dynamite made it relatively safe. The California Powerworks had the patent and started manufacturing Dynamite in Santa Cruz and in San Francisco on or near what became Golden Gate Park. There was another plant called the Hercules plant (Hercules in Greek Lore killed Giants) and so they operated facilities near each other which had a tendency to explode.

Explosions were common in munitions plants and after the second blast in San Francisco on or near Golden Gate Park that blew out the glass from downtown San Francisco to Cliff House, the city fathers decided that instead of replacing the glass in the buildings of San Francisco every time one of these things lit up, they would send the plants to Berkeley across the Bay to what is now Albany California at the Polo Grounds. The plant blew up three times and rebuilt each time until the big blast.

The following is the official record of the incident. Holden, Edward S. “Powder Explosion at West Berkeley, July 9, 1892.” Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 4, no. 25 (1892): 187-90. Accessed August 8, 2020. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40667068.

“”The Giant Powder Works plant, near West Berkeley, a suburban place on the northeastern coast of the bay, about eight miles from San Francisco, was blown up at nine o’clock A. M. on the ninth of July, and it is believed to be the most extensive explosion of the kind that has ever happened. Being situated on a spit of land projecting out into the bay there was a free course for air disturbance to the city, and other surroundings on the southern and western side of the bay, and windows were crushed for a distance of ten miles where no elevated land intervened.
The air disturbance followed channels where the physical formation permitted horizontal flow, and even streets in the city seemed to have guided the lines of greatest effect. Continue reading “The Berkeley Blast – 500 tons of Dynamite that blasted out the glass of San Francisco 8 miles away”

Benicia CA – TOURTELOT PROPERTY (48970005) Housing on unexploded shells on Gunnery range

What happens when you build a housing development and then 6 years later you find unexploded artillery shells on the property? Perhaps it might have been a clue that the property was once called the Benicia Arsenal and that during World War II it was an artillery range?

Site History

Prior to 1990, the Tourtelot Property consisted of approximately 220 acres of undeveloped grassland situated in the northwest corner of the former Benicia Arsenal. The Army leased the Tourtelot Property from 1944 to 1960 for artillery testing, ordnance and explosives (OE) demilitarization, and demolition of damaged and obsolete munitions. In 1990, Granite Management Corporation (Granite) began grading the site for home construction. In 1996, Granite found concrete-filled howitzer shells and live ordnance on the site. Granite then retained the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to characterize the site for OE and chemical impacts to soil and groundwater. Contaminants on the Tourtelot Property included: petroleum hydrocarbons; polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons; dioxins/furans (combustion by-products); volatile organic compounds; trinitrotoluene; and OE. Continue reading “Benicia CA – TOURTELOT PROPERTY (48970005) Housing on unexploded shells on Gunnery range”

Farallon Islands Nuclear Waste sites

The Navy dumped over 47,000 barrels of nuclear waste off the coast of San Francisco near the Farallon Islands. This is a map of their locations. Unfortunately they were supposed to bury it in deep water but it can be found in water 300 meters deep .

John L. Chin and Allan Ota,”Disposal of Dredged Material and Other Waste on the Continental Shelf and Slope” U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia: 2001 Circular 1198 (full-length technical version) p 201

The USS Independence which according to Navy Records was sunk at the approximate location of this map was actually found farther south in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. USS Independence Irradiated in Nuclear Tests found in Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary
E/V Nautilus explores the Flight Deck of the USS Independence

Most of that 47000 barrels of nuclear waste were stored on the ship when they sunk the Air Craft Carrier. So the amounts sunk in the Farallon Islands must be adjusted.
Continue reading “Farallon Islands Nuclear Waste sites”