These are the people I am fighting for to publish the Navy reports on my Treasure Island website and on this Disaster Area website documenting the Navy’s contamination of Hunters Point shipyard by the US Navy’s Radiological Defense Laboratory based at Hunters Point and at Treasure Island, the Navy’s Atomic, Biological and Chemical Warfare Training Center.
1:50 USS independence next to the Nagato before Test Able 2:20 target ships mapped 4:14 The scientists and samples 6:00 Radio controlled drones 7:00 Manhattan project scientists at Kwajalein 9:40 dropping of the bomb 14:31 diffused cloud “dangerous radioactive particles in the air had become so diffused it was no longer a danger to the area.” 15:52 camera on bikini showing shock wave. 17:20 map of what ships got hit as they dropped the bomb off target. Independence noted 18:55 Independence seen just after explosion when the support ships entered the lagoon. 21:54 animals 24:31 Skate stating the inside were damaged, so they went inside it. 25:21 USS Independence 27:34 Baker Test, second test underwater explosion. 40:00 USS Independence
REPORT NO. 8 – EXPERIMENTAL WORK AT SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD Work on Monday, 23 September 1946:
USS BENEVOLENCE: Setting up of an acid mixing tank on the main deck ana the hookup Of the evaporators so that all six effects will be completely filled with circulating acid was accomplished during the day. The tank was set up on the main deck to simplify operations and keep the evaporator room from getting cluttered up with acid barrels, etc. Where the Yard felt it necessary, sections of piping removed from the evaporators were kept and new pipes substituted. “Hot*’ valves were dipped in a two normal solution of Hydrochloric Acid on the main deck. The valves showed some radioactivity after ten to twenty minutes of such treatment but were declared safe for work by X31 provided there was sufficient ventilation for anyone working on them. Continue reading “1946-09-23 REPORT NO. 8 – EXPERIMENTAL WORK AT SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD”→
6th Report, 20 September 1946 – INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Vessels from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval
Shipyard begun on 5 September 1946.
Work was begun yesterday to implement the decisions of the medical “strategy” board convened aboard the USS BENEVOLENCE on the 18th.
In advance of one of the measures decided upon (flushing with fresh water of the Salt Water Systems of the BENEVOLENCE and HENRICO) a careful check was being made of the Salt Water Lines to insure that proper isolation of sections being worked on at present would exist, and as a corollary, to obtain a maximum flushing effect with only portions of the felt Water system available. All Salt Water pumps were ordered inoperable (i.e. electric pumps are to be disconnected, steam driven pumps to have valves locked).
The decision to conduct a burning test on sections of hot Firemain piping containing considerable marine growth (a top priority job) was implemented yesterday by the selection of sections of pipe from the LAFFEY and BOTTINEAU (Copper-nickel and steel respectively). Dr. Chadbourn, after monitoring the piping, selected the Shipfitters Shop aboard the LAFFEY for the test, and took samples while the burning was being done, RBA equipment was used by the burner and Dr. Chadbourn.
The, senior monitor, Lt. Comdr. Skow, took readings on all three evaporators of the BENEVOLENCE in preparation for the injection of Hydrochloric Acid (1 normal) which will be started this morning. The evaporator room, because of its difficulty of access, for pumps, acid barrels etc. has required considerable effort to prepare. The readings of the evaporator scale are now said to be 5 times tolerance (and hence exposure should not exceed 4-1/2 hours) not 2 times as stated in the fifth report.
INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY Of Vessels from Bikini At the San Francisco Naval Shipyard Begun on 5 September 1946
Yesterday morning aboard the LAFFEY one experiment in decontaminating salt water piping was concluded and another begun. The experiment just concluded awaits laboratory testing before any results are known.
The section of Firemain which had been pumped full of pH 6.0 solution (Acetic Acid and Ammonium Hydroxide) on Saturday, 14 September at 1100, was blown out at 1100 yesterday. An air hose was attached to one end of the Firemain and a hose led from the other end to a steel barrel up on the main deck, and the Firemain was blown clear. The contents of the barrel were monitored and showed radioactive emission as heavy as had previously been found in the Firemain on Saturday (.010) which would appear to indicate that the decontaminating solution had brought a considerable portion of the radioactive particles out with it. The barrel of radioactive solution was hoisted overboard, using a quaywall crane, onto a truck and when taken to the Industrial laboratory to be held there until arrangements are made for disposal. One quart of the solution was taken by Dr. Scott for a laboratory assay. After the Firemain had been blown clear of the solution, the air service was disconnected and a fresh water hose connected to the Firemain. The hose at the outlet end was led to a second barrel for examination of the first amount of flushing water. This water was found to be practically free of emission, so on the advice of Dr. Scott the discharge hose was led into the bay and flushing operations were scheduled to continue overnight. The flushing operation was begun at 1330. The leading man of X-56 who was holding the hose in the barrel when the radioactive solution was being blown from the firemain received spray and some of the liquid on his bare hands. He was advised to wash it off immediately. Continue reading “1946-09-18 4th Report INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY Of Vessels from Bikini At the San Francisco Naval Shipyard Begun on 5 September 1946”→
[Page 13] COMMANDER’S OFFICE SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA 11 September 1946
NAVAL SHIPYARD NOTICE No, 244-46
Sub: Vessels Arriving from Bikini – Instructions Governing Special Tests. 1. The following instructions will govern relative to the special teats to be conducted by the San Francisco Naval Shipyard on ships employed in the Bikini operation: A. Planning
1. Procure funds and originate Job Orders. 2. Follow up work procedures developed, smoothing same out, and put into such form as may be promulgated to other activities. 3. Compile all data necessary for the development of such reports as may be required from time to time.
1. Develop work procedures in accordance with existing and subsequent instructions.2. See to it that ships have radiological, clearance when they enter yard.
C. Industrial Relations 1. In consultation With Production, disseminate instructions relative to safety precautions.
J. W. FOWLER Commodore, USN Commander
DJBT: CO, OH, OF, CF
Page 13 [Page 14 posted]
REPORT NO. 2 EXPERIMENTAL WORK, SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.
Film of the Navy purposely contaminating San Francisco with Serratia marcescens in 1951 and in color, “Naval Concepts of Chemical and Biological Warfare” Naval Concepts of Chemical and Biological Warfare (1952), Department of Defense Film Production, National Archives and Records Administration Catalogue # 428.MN.9170A, Declassified NND Authority # 64044
Navy Reports that indicate the Biological Warfare training was concurrent with the Radiological Warfare Decontamination Training at Treasure Island. This constant testing caused an incident in 1950 whereby 11 people were infected by a bacterium that produced a pneumonia that cost a man his life. Senator Edward Kennedy was very upset about this in a 1977 hearing and chewed out the Army official who told the committee about the problem.
A1.05 Simulant Agents Simulant BW agents are microorganisms or compounds having little or no pathogenicity or toxicity, but otherwise resembling true BW agents in certain characteristics or properties, such as viability, size, food or cultural requirements, growth characteristics, persistency, and routes of invasion. They are particularly useful in field testing the behavior of munitions, determination of effect of particle size on penetration of the air passages of animals, survival of vegetable and spore-bearing organisms under experimental and environmental conditions, testing of protective devices and procedures, and for training. purposes. Examples of microbial simulants are serratia marcescens or Bacillus prodigiosus, a vegetable nonsporulating organism, and Bacillus globigii, a spore-forming rod-shaped bacterium. Continue reading “1953-Biological Warfare Training Manual at Treasure Island, San Francisco CA”→
The Navy built a mockup of a ship at Treasure Island which was used to train military personnel how to clean up after a Chemical and/or biological strike. The ship was later built to contain laboratories and a large shower room for decontaminating the personnel exposed to the biological and Chemical agents in the testing.
All Hands The Bureau of Naval Personnel Information Bulletin July 1957 Nav-Pers-O Number 486 The Good Ship ‘Pandemonium’ pp 16., Treasure Island,
ARRIVING AT NAVAL STATION, Treasure Island, with orders from the Chief of Naval Personnel to teach Biological-Chemical defensive measures at the Damage Control School, CDR John H. Stover, MC, usn, had the bright idea that simulated “reallife” shipboard conditions would be a big help in teaching the course.
That idea, plus plenty of willing hands, plus help from Navy headquarters, resulted in Pandemonium.
Here’s the story:
There was no ship in the area that could have answered the needs of the course.
Even if there had been, it would have been a tough job to obtain exclusive use of it for class-room studies.
But—parts of ships would provide the same desired simulated effect in demonstrating the use of modem techniques. There was a deck house handy, and it was not in use.
From various naval installations in the area came promises of “junk,” surplus gear, scraps for enlarging the “mock-up” to include a partial deck, some old guns, winches and a bit of hull at the bow.
As soon as the promised materials began to arrive, labor was performed by the personnel of the service school command and through the Naval Receiving Station in the form of transient personnel. Soon students “came aboard” for training, learning through actual demonstration and practice.
Through the chain of command application was made to the Bureau of Ships for funds to sink pilings and raise the deck to the level of an actual PC-type vessel for better simulated working conditions. BuShips, realizing the value of such a project, made the funds available. Later, pilings were sunk and the deck house and partial deck were hoisted into place upon them.
This odd-looking vessel with only deck house and partial deck, looked somehow like a house on stilts, with no underpinning.
But now more scraps began to arrive, metal pieces, hatches, and fittings. Plans and photographs of a PC-type vessel were procured, and construction continued.
Fifteen months later, in February, 1957, the “ship” had progressed to an undreamed-of stage. She now measured 173 feet in length, 24 feet at the beam.
BuShips provided money for steel, a wash-down system and utilities and had given cooperation in procuring the many miscellaneous items of equipment.
Bureau of Medicine and Surgery gave financial aid and equipment for shipboard laboratories. BuPers provided funds for shore connections to run the utilities to the ship, and aided by procuring items of equipment including surplus guns, compasses, electrical gear, flags, sextants, and binoculars. A “ship” was taking shape.
On 1 Feb 1957, ceremonies for christening the strange craft were held at the Atomic-Biological-Chemical Defense section of the Naval Schools Command at Treasure Island. The name Pandemonium had been decided upon, since it best described the little ship’s decks immediately following a simulated attack by enemy forces.
At the ceremony, the Twelfth Naval District Band struck up the National Anthem, the Jack was hoisted, and uss Pandemonium (PCDC-1) swept down the ways Here, thanks to a bright idea, students will sail through many years of classroom studies learning defensive measures againt biological and chemical attack.
Medical News Letter, Vol. 26, No. S p. 24 Friday, September 20, 1957
Information for Medical Officers Medical officers are encouraged to attend one of the following courses of instruction in the indoctrination of the defensive aspects of atomic, biological, and chemical warfare. Each course is five weeks in duration.
Two weeks are devoted to atomic warfare defense; two weeks to biological chemical warfare defense; and the fifth week to the planning and damage control aspects of special weapons handling. Secret clearance is required for all or any phase of the courses, and prospective students should familiarize themselves with the contents of OpNav Instruction 5510. 1A. Additional information on the courses may be found in BuPers Instruction 1500. 25 and BuPers Notice 1500 of 10 May 1955. Requests for attendance should be processed m accordance with local instructions. Convening dates for the remainder of Fiscal Year 1956 are contained in the directives above. Continue reading “Atomic, Biological and Chemical Training at Treasure Island California 1957”→