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13577 Radiation Film Badges were used at Hunters Point Shipyard in 1960

In 1960 the US Naval Radiological Defense Lab developed 2655 Radiation Measuring Film Badges for Treasure Island and 12,688 for the US Naval Radiological Defense Lab at Hunters Point Shipyard along with 889 for Hunters Point Shipyard separate from the Defense Lab. These badges are dosimeters that measure how much radiation a person was exposed to during a period of time and they were collected from all over the Bay Area to be developed and analyzed at the Defense Lab for the year of 1960.

U.S. Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory., Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. (1961). Radiological safety at USNRDL: annual progress report health physics division ; 1 January to 31 December 1960. San Francisco, California: U.S. Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. p 20

This document is a who’s who of radiological exposure just for one year at the US Navy’s Radiological Defense Laboratory and I highly recommend it as reading material to give you a look into the radiation experiments they conducted on the shipyard (including building numbers) and all throughout the Bay Area, including downtown San Francisco!

The presence of radiation badges means each time a human being was exposed to radiation over the course of an experiment or regular monitoring of radiation exposure on site. A very frequent and robust radiological contaminations were taking place at the Shipyard and Treasure Island in 1960.

Camp Parks in Dublin CA was the field station for the Lab where they conducted radiological tests on the base while military personnel worked and lived on the base. These experiments included using the gymnasium to rain down radioactive isotopes to determine its effects on roof structures and that gymnasium was then “cleaned up” and was used by the Navy and then the Air Force when they took over the base and as recently as last year by private entities before it was torn down. Stanford Research did a lot of radiological work at Camp Parks and it is clear they had many nuclear accidents reported in this report from 1960.

They did this for other locations listed below:

Dosimeter films developed at the USNRDL 1960
NRDLFilm ProcessedTotals
Laboratory personnel7684
Laboratory visitors1619
Environmental monitoring471
Calibration film900
Special films for Nucleonics Div.109
Special films for Bio-Med Div.5
Special films for Health Physics Div.3
RadCon Team film (controls)11
Special test exposures163
Camp Parks Personnel and visitors1361
Camp Parks Environmental monitoring362
12688Subtotal
Outside Activities
San Francisco Naval Shipyard889
Treasure Island Inspector of Navy Material523
Treasure Island Radiac Maintenance School and Dispensary2122
Port Chicago958
NAS Moffett Field97
USN Dispensary, 50 Fell St. , San Francisco56
DPWO, 12ND30
NSC, Oakland (Naval Supply Center, Oakland)200
USS HANCOCK51
NAS Fallon. Nevada67
USNH, Oakland (US Naval Hospital Oakland)21
MSTS, San Francisco24
NAD, Hawthorne, Nevada17
U. S. Coast Guard5
5060Subtotal
17748Total

1946 Project Crossroads Nuclear Test Film

Here is a summary of the time stamps of this video:

Project Crossroads – Nuclear Test Film (1946)
Courtesy: U.S. Department of Energy

1:50 USS independence next to the Nagato before Test Able
2:20 target ships mapped
4:14 The scientists and samples
6:00 Radio controlled drones
7:00 Manhattan project scientists at Kwajalein
9:40 dropping of the bomb
14:31 diffused cloud “dangerous radioactive particles in the air had become so diffused it was no longer a danger to the area.”
15:52 camera on bikini showing shock wave.
17:20 map of what ships got hit as they dropped the bomb off target. Independence noted
18:55 Independence seen just after explosion when the support ships entered the lagoon.
21:54 animals
24:31 Skate stating the inside were damaged, so they went inside it.
25:21 USS Independence
27:34 Baker Test, second test underwater explosion.
40:00 USS Independence

https://youtu.be/2HkLZekOZLU
Project Crossroads – Nuclear Test Film (1946)
Courtesy: U.S. Department of Energy

Continue reading “1946 Project Crossroads Nuclear Test Film”

1946-09-16 SECOND REPORT INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Ships from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard

Citation: OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 pp. 13-18

[Page 13] 
COMMANDER’S OFFICE
SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD
SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA
11 September 1946

NAVAL SHIPYARD NOTICE No, 244-46

Sub: Vessels Arriving from Bikini – Instructions Governing Special Tests.
1.            The following instructions will govern relative to the special teats to be conducted by the San Francisco Naval Shipyard on ships employed in the Bikini operation:
A. Planning

1. Procure funds and originate Job Orders.
2. Follow up work procedures developed, smoothing same out, and put into such form as may be promulgated to other activities.
3. Compile all data necessary for the development of such reports as may be required from time to time.

B. Production

1. Develop work procedures in accordance with existing and subsequent instructions.2. See to it that ships have radiological, clearance when they enter yard.

C. Industrial Relations
1. In consultation With Production, disseminate instructions relative to safety precautions.

J. W. FOWLER
Commodore, USN
Commander

DJBT: CO, OH, OF, CF

SECRET

Page 13
[Page 14 posted]

REPORT NO. 2
EXPERIMENTAL WORK, SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.

SECOND REPORT 16 September 1946 – INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Ships from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard starting 5 September 1946. Continue reading “1946-09-16 SECOND REPORT INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVITY of Ships from Bikini at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard”

1946-10-01 Meeting discussing the dumping of radioactive Sand into SF Bay, Puget Sound, LA, San Diego, Pearl Harbor, Norfolk etc.

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

Citation: DTIC AD0473908: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3 pp. 61-73

REPORT OF CONFERENCE
San Francisco Naval Shipyard
Meeting at 1100, 1 October 1946.
Present were:
Dr. F. H. Rodenbaugh
Dr. K. 3. Scott
Capt. W. E. Walsh (MC) USN
Capt. Wynn, USN
Capt. Lemler, USN
Capt. Maxwell, USN
Lt. Comdr. Turnbaugh, USN
Lt. Comdr. Skow, USN
Lt. Chadbourn (MC) USN
Lt. (jg) Morton (MC) USN
Lt. Howell, USNR
Mr. Hammond
Mr. Gordon
Comdr. Hoffman

SECRET

Page 61
[Page 62]

SECRET

Maxwell: We called this conference together to make certain recommendations to’ BuShips on the means and methods to decontaminate salt water piping based on experiments conducted at this Yard – using ammonium citrate solution and muriatic acid solution. We found that muriatic acid removes all the foreign matter and activity. It does a complete job. The ammonium citrate does a similar job to a lesser extent – about 90% of the activity is removed. We found a medicine that can be used – it may not be the best, etc.

Dr. Scott and Dr. Rodenbaugh, are you in a position to give us a few answers that we are after – when should we use this medicine – what standard should we use – when should we use the acid and when should we use the citrate thru the salt water system?

Rodenbaugh: You mean as to how much radiation you have in the systems? You may ask me from a medical point of view, but ask Dr. Scott about the physical aspects. Continue reading “1946-10-01 Meeting discussing the dumping of radioactive Sand into SF Bay, Puget Sound, LA, San Diego, Pearl Harbor, Norfolk etc.”

1946-09-11 RECORD OF TELEPHONE CONVERSATION BETWEEN CAPTAIN W. G. WALSH, RADIOLOGICAL OFFICER, FOR JOINT TASK FORCE 1 AND CAPTAIN C. J. CATER, PLANNING OFFICER, SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 pp. 11-12

[Note all page numbers and notes will be enclosed in these brackets]

SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD Code No. (200) San Francisco 24, Calif.

RECORD OF TELEPHONE CONVERSATION BETWEEN CAPTAIN W. G. WALSH, RADIOLOGICAL OFFICER, FOR JOINT TASK FORCE 1 AND CAPTAIN C. J. CATER, PLANNING OFFICER, SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD, ON THIS DATE.
11 September 1946.

Captain Walsh stated that he had his apparatus ready to conduct the tests for sandblasting which he would like to conduct on 12 September starting at 9:00 A.M. Captain Cater stated the Yard would be ready. Continue reading “1946-09-11 RECORD OF TELEPHONE CONVERSATION BETWEEN CAPTAIN W. G. WALSH, RADIOLOGICAL OFFICER, FOR JOINT TASK FORCE 1 AND CAPTAIN C. J. CATER, PLANNING OFFICER, SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD”

1946-09-10 Cleaning Salt Water Systems; dumping radiation directly into into San Francisco Bay

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

Citation: DTIC AD0473908: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 3 pp. 9-10

[Note all page numbers and notes will be enclosed in these brackets]

DISTRICT MEDICAL OFFICE TWELFTH NAVAL DISTRICT SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA
10 September 1946
CONFIDENTIAL MEMORANDUM

To: Commander, San Francisco Naval Shipyard

Subj: Cleaning Salt Water Systems

  1. The following test procedure to be used on the cleaning of non-target ships; USS LAFFEY, USS BARTON, and any other ship participating in the Bikini operations. Accurate records are to be kept of all operations and a copy forwarded by Air Mail Special Delivery to Rear Admiral T.A. Solberg, Code 180, BuShips. A copy will also be furnished to Captain W. E. Walsh, USN, District Medical Office, 50 Fell Street, San Francisco, California.
  2. (a) A solution of citrate acid and ammonium hydroxide for cleaning of salt water piping systems (strength to be determined) is to be entered into the system on the out-board leg of the suction side of the suction pump. All outlets except one of the crew’s water closets are to be closed. This one outlet is to allow only a minimum flow.
    Then at each of the-other outlets of the system, water is to be drawn off until presence of the citrate acid and ammonium hydroxide solution is definitely found to be in that section of piping. Flow through the system is to be continuous co the one open 1 outlet. The citrate acid and ammonium hydroxide solution is to be continuously entered into the system from the outboard side of the suction pumps, (overflow from the outlet may be allowed to enter the harbor). Approximate time of Operation to be one hour.

    [Later work determined that radiation was concentrated in the acid solution and therefore the overflow was radioactive and dumped into the Bay at Hunters Point Shipyard]

    (b) Second step of the cleaning operation is to completely flush out the entire system with fresh water and concentration of standard bailer compound, one (1) pound to twenty (20) gallons of water.
    (c) Continuous records of the readings of the system are to be kept.

SECRET

Page 9
[Page 10]

3. (a) Samples of copper-nickel and iron piping of salt water systems are to be tested in three different concentrations of hydrochloric acid solutions of one half normal, three-quarters normal, and one normal. The pipes samples are to be tested in small sections of about three inches in length.
(b) Similar samples are to be forwarded to Dr. Scott, University of California.[Dr. K.G. Scott, UC Berkeley Radiation Laboratory]
(c) The object of these tests is-to determine the effect of these various solutions on the cleaning marine growth, rust and other foreign matter on the inside of the pipes. Quantitative measurements of the marine growth, rust and other foreign matter on the interior of the pipe should be made before and during the testing.

  1. (a) Upon the first cleaning of heat transfer units, principally evaporators, or distilling plants. On such heat transfer equipment where scale is formed by deposits from salt water systems, the scale should be cleaned as much as possible by using thermal shock treatment.
    (b) All scale that has cracked off the piping shall be thoroughly “removed, using standard safety precautions.
    (c) A solution of muriatic acid shall then be used to further complete the removal of scale.
    (d) A monitor shall be present on opening up the heat exchange unit at all times when following the above procedure.
    (e) All scale removed should be segregated and dumped at sea.
  2. Cleaning of the ship’s side in drydock shall be accomplished in the following manner:
    (a) The ship’s side shall be kept moist and marine growth shall be scraped off. The growth shall be kept wet while scraping down. All materials scraped from the side of the ship shall be cleaned from the drydock and segregated. The segregated material shall be dumped at sea.
    (b) Wet sandblasting, using standard equipment, is to be then used for removing the remainder of paint on the hull. The sand is also to be dumped at sea.

T. A. SOLBERG
Rear Admiral, USN.

V W. S. MAXWELL Captain, USN
By direction

SECRET

Page 10

Source: OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON-TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 2 , DNA ltr, 21 Apr 1982, THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED, DIRECTOR OF SHIPTECHNICAL INSPECTION REPORT. Radiological Decontamination of Target and Non-Target Vessels, VOLUME 2 OF 3.

 

1946-09-06 Telephone-conversation between Captain W. E. Walsh (MC) USN, Joint Task Force One, Medical Officer, and Captain C. J. Cater, Planning Officer, San Francisco Naval Shipyard

Navy Reports that document the dumping of nuclear waste directly into San Francisco Bay as well as other Navy Bases, the orders, correspondence, etc.

Citation: OPERATION CROSSROADS, RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON- TARGET VESSELS Part 2 p. 8

[Note all page numbers and notes will be enclosed in these brackets]

SAN FRANCISCO NAVAL SHIPYARD
Code No. (200) San Francisco 24, Calif.
DD/A3-2
(28848)
6 SEPT 1946
To: ComTwelve

Subj: Telephone-conversation between Captain W. E. Walsh (MC) USN, Joint Task Force One, Medical Officer, and Captain C. J. Cater, Planning Officer, San Francisco Naval Shipyard, 6 September 1946 – Confirmation of

  1. Captain Walsh informed Captain Cater that it would be satisfactory for the San Francisco Naval Shipyard to proceed with all repair and alteration work on the USS WALKE, USS BARTON, USS LAFFEY and USS LOWRY, with the exception of work on the underwater body, and any other machinery in which salt water had been circulated. Work on machinery in which salt water had been circulated will be deferred pending further notification from Captain Walsh.
  2. As regards the LAFFEY, which is now in floating drydock, care must be taken that no workmen enter the dock except those actually employed in the necessary tests. It was emphasized that no other workmen should enter the dock around the outside of the ship. It was satisfactory for the workman to go inside the LAFFEY as set forth in paragraph 1 above.

CC: CWSF
330

C. J. CATER Captain USN Planning Officer District Medical Officer
163
300
100

SECRET

Page 8

[Captain Walsh operated out of the District Naval Office which was at 50 Fell Street San Francisco. I am documenting all the content I can find from the reports so they can be cross referenced.]

OPERATION CROSSROADS. RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF TARGET AND NON-TARGET VESSELS. VOLUME 2 , DNA ltr, 21 Apr 1982, THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED, DIRECTOR OF SHIP TECHNICAL INSPECTION REPORT. Radiological Decontamination of Target and Non-Target Vessels, VOLUME 2 OF 3.