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245 biological experiments on US citizens in cities and bases, Navy Biological Warfare Lab in SF Bay

Film of the Navy purposely contaminating 43 square miles of San Francisco with Serratia marcescens in 1950 and in color, at 2:25 “Naval Concepts of Chemical and Biological Warfare” Naval Concepts of Chemical and Biological Warfare (1952), Department of Defense Film Production, National Archives and Records Administration Catalogue # 428.MN.9170A, Declassified NND Authority # 64044

This article will be divide up in sections:

ABC Warfare Defense, Navy Training Course, Bureau of Naval Personnel, NAVPERS, 1960 10099 p 124
notice Alcatraz in the background and the headlands
  • Biological testing involving human subjects by the Department of Defense, 1977 hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, first session … March 8 and May 23, 1977
  • p 124
  • Biological testing involving human subjects by the Department of Defense, 1977 hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, first session … March 8 and May 23, 1977
  • p 125
  • Biological testing involving human subjects by the Department of Defense, 1977 hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, first session … March 8 and May 23, 1977
  • p 126
    Continue reading “245 biological experiments on US citizens in cities and bases, Navy Biological Warfare Lab in SF Bay”
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    Fort Baker Biological Lab for (LAIR) Letterman Army Institute of Research on the Presidio

    Today Fort Baker is a part of the Golden Gate National Park where they have a children’s museum and activities on the location of the US Army’s Biological Research Field Laboratory that was closed down when an outbreak of Q Fever swept the base in 1979. The Army called it an accident as they were experimenting on Sheep and goats that just so happen to have Q Fever, and the disease infected the base. There could be no other reason because the US signed onto the International Treaties that banned biological weapons in 1972.

    But the Army used Q Fever (Coxilella Burnetii) in Biological Warfare Experiments from 1951 through 1967 at the Dugway Proving Grounds. See Main article “245 biological experiments on US citizens in cities and bases, Navy Biological Warfare Lab in SF Bay

  • Biological testing involving human subjects by the Department of Defense, 1977 hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, first session … March 8 and May 23, 1977
  • p 135
  • Biological testing involving human subjects by the Department of Defense, 1977 hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, first session … March 8 and May 23, 1977
  • p. 136

    During Desert Storm the Army claimed that the disease Q Fever had infected its soldiers in the field and that this was the first time it was seen by the military. That does not square with the records above. If they truly did not know about it, what does that say about the waste and lack of care in preserving documents?

    See: Anderson, A. D., Smoak, B., Shuping, E., Ockenhouse, C., & Petruccelli, B. (2005). Q Fever and the US Military. Emerging Infectious Diseases11(8), 1320-1322. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050314.

    Given that all of this research is classified at the time, has anyone in the military ever decided to keep track of research so as to avoid accidents like this or to build on previous research instead of inventing the wheel every time a disease crops up?

    LAIR Letterman Army Institute of Research (LAIR) was at the Presidio next to Letterman Army Hospital. Fort Baker was the field laboratory for both entities and the NRC regulated the Radiological Labs at all three locations. Here are is a the cover letter and map of the Radiation facilities from December 6 1991.

    EARTHDAY 2021 PROTEST SAN FRANCISCO video

    These are the people I am fighting for to publish the Navy reports on my Treasure Island website and on this Disaster Area website documenting the Navy’s contamination of Hunters Point shipyard by the US Navy’s Radiological Defense Laboratory based at Hunters Point and at Treasure Island, the Navy’s Atomic, Biological and Chemical Warfare Training Center.

    And if you want a sample of the Navy’s own sources, of what they dumped and polluted at Hunters Point Shipyard, here is their Health and Safety report from 1960 documenting the exposures by building number and listing the radiological accidents just for 1960
    U.S. Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory., Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. (1961). Radiological safety at USNRDL: annual progress report health physics division ; 1 January to 31 December 1960. San Francisco, California: U.S. Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. Note: This text is searchable on that website

    Treasure Island – Naval Training Bulletin. 1956-57 June p 12 Damage Controlman, Class A Courses

    Schools Command, US Naval Station, Treasure Island Calif., Naval Training Bulletin. 1956-57 June p 12 HathiTrust page

    1. Fire Fighting (3 weeks fire-fighting; 1 week portable pumps) 4 weeks
    2. Atomic and Chemical Defense Monitoring – 3 weeks
    3. Basic Woodworking Tools and General Carpentry 4 weeks
    4. Welding, Mathematics, and Blueprints 4 weeks
    5. Practical Damage Control 4 weeks
    6. Painting and Plastic Pipe Repair 2 weeks, 2 days

    Treasure Island – Biological and Chemical Training on USS Pandemonium Dec 1956 Naval Training Bulletin

    USS Pandemonium being built for Biological, Chemical training. Naval Training Bulletin December 1956 pp 9-11. HathiTrust Link
    Note the students training:
    Page 10: July 1955 – – Students practice Biological and chemical warfare countermeasures on deckhouse.
    PAGE 10: Lower right Construction work is suspended temporarily for class drills.
    pAGE 11: September 1956 – – A class hoses down the main deck aft. The 40 mm and K guns have just been acquired.

    Naval Training Bulletin December 1956, pg. 9

    1953-Biological Warfare Training Manual at Treasure Island, San Francisco CA

    Film of the Navy purposely contaminating San Francisco with Serratia marcescens in 1951 and in color, “Naval Concepts of Chemical and Biological Warfare” Naval Concepts of Chemical and Biological Warfare (1952), Department of Defense Film Production, National Archives and Records Administration Catalogue # 428.MN.9170A, Declassified NND Authority # 64044

    Navy Reports that indicate the Biological Warfare training was concurrent with the Radiological Warfare Decontamination Training at Treasure Island. This constant testing caused an incident in 1950 whereby 11 people were infected by a bacterium that produced a pneumonia that cost a man his life. Senator Edward Kennedy was very upset about this in a 1977 hearing and chewed out the Army official who told the committee about the problem.

    NIH report on Serratia infections

    United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Human Resources. Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research. Biological Testing Involving Human Subjects by the Department of Defense, 1977: Hearings Before the Subcommittee On Health And Scientific Research of the Committee On Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, First Session … March 8 And May 23, 1977. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1977.

    United States Navy Biological Warfare Defense, Civil Engineer Corps, United States Navy, TECHNICAL PUBLICATION NAVDOCKS TP-PL-4; REV. 15 April 1953 (REPRINTED 1 SEPT 1953 INCORPORATING PRIOR CHANGES)
    Department of the Navy, Bureau of Yards and Docks, Washington 25, DC
    :

    A1.05 Simulant Agents
    Simulant BW agents are microorganisms or compounds having little or no pathogenicity or toxicity, but otherwise resembling true BW agents in certain characteristics or properties, such as viability, size, food or cultural requirements, growth characteristics, persistency, and routes of invasion. They are particularly useful in field testing the behavior of munitions, determination of effect of particle size on penetration of the air passages of animals, survival of vegetable and spore-bearing organisms under experimental and environmental conditions, testing of protective devices and procedures, and for training. purposes. Examples of microbial simulants are serratia marcescens or Bacillus prodigiosus, a vegetable nonsporulating organism, and Bacillus globigii, a spore-forming rod-shaped bacterium. Continue reading “1953-Biological Warfare Training Manual at Treasure Island, San Francisco CA”

    Treasure Island Atomic, Biological, and Chemical Warfare for Medical Officers

    Medical News Letter, Vol. 33, No. 12 op. 20
    Training in ABC Warfare for Medical Officers -A Four Weeks’ Course

    Course #5 convening 4 January 1960
    Location: U.S. Naval Schools Command, Naval Station, Treasure Island, San Francisco, Calif.
    Student Clearance Required: SECRET
    Reporting Time and Place: Prior to 2200, 3 January 1960, Personnel Office, U.S. Naval Schools Command, Bldg. 28

    Course Objectives

    The course is designed for experienced active duty Naval Medical officers possessing SECRET security clearance. It will stress the medical aspects of modern warfare and of military peace time operations, including problems incident to atomic, biological, and chemical weapons systems, nuclear propulsion, mass casualties, and isotope programs. Military aspects of the weapons systems and military countermeasures will also be considered so that Medical officers may function effectively on a staff and can reasonably assess the medical compromises imposed by the military situation. Outstanding speakers, both military and civilian, will be on the program. The course will include visits to the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory and the Naval Biological Laboratory; it will also include several practical exercises and drills. Texts will be provided for permanent retention Continue reading “Treasure Island Atomic, Biological, and Chemical Warfare for Medical Officers”

    Treasure Island CA – Biological and Chemical Training Center US Navy Medical News Letter, Vol. 29, No. 5 Friday, l March 1957 page 14

    Description of the Atomic, Biological and Chemical training center at Treasure Island Navy Base including the showers necessary to decontaminate the students from the Biological and Chemical Training Center at Treasure Island.

    The Evolution of the USS Pandemonium US Navy Medical News Letter, Vol. 29, No. 5 Friday, l March 1957 page 14

    The old adage, “Big oaks from little acorns grow, ” was recently demonstrated at the Biological and Chemical Warfare Defense School at Treasure Island, Calif. In July 1955, an old deckhouse served as a mockup for shipboard training in biological and chemical warfare counter-measures. Today, the deckhouse has grown into the USS Pandemonium, a full-scale mockup of a 173 PC.
    The Pandemonium has been designed throughout for the teaching of all phases of ABC shipboard defense and recovery techniques. It was constructed from a set of general plans of the PC-1170 and !rom photos of the PC-116. Continue reading “Treasure Island CA – Biological and Chemical Training Center US Navy Medical News Letter, Vol. 29, No. 5 Friday, l March 1957 page 14”

    Treasure Island, in San Francisco CA the Navy’s Atomic, Biological and Chemical (ABC) School Course List

    Treasure Island which is being developed for real estate by builders with political connections even though it is an EPA Superfund site for Nuclear Radiation; the city of San Francisco placed public housing on the site in the former barracks of the base. For background on this problem look at this article by Reuters “A California Naval base shutters, and contamination lingers decades later” CONDEMNED: After the Navy closed the Treasure Island base in 1997, San Francisco planned much-needed new housing. Decades later, pollution lingers, leaving new housing a mirage.” REUTERS/Elijah Nouvelage.

    This is a course list from 1978 of the courses provided on the Island at the US Navy’s Command School and Damage Control School. Note the Atomic, Biological and Chemical (ABC) school was renamed Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) school.

    The school built a mockup of a ship USS Pandemonium which they laced with Radioactive Isotopes and the sailors learned to find the radiation and use various techniques to clean the ship by hand and also use fire-fighting hoses to spray the radiation off of the ship and down the drain into the Bay. Also they buried radioactive materials all over the island for the sailors to find.

    This most likely explains how a little girl had fallout beads in her treasure box, along with radium dials that were removed from ships which she found digging for “Treasure” on Treasure Island! Fallout varies in size the larger closer into a nuclear blast and when it forms, it becomes a bead or drop shaped piece of glass. The US Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory at Hunters Point Shipyard collected fallout at nuclear tests by specifically collecting this fallout for study by building collectors placed at the Nuclear Test Sites.

    The Courses:

    Guide to the Evaluation of Educational Experiences in the Armed Services. The 1978 Guide. 3: Coast Guard, Marine Corps, Navy.
    American Council on Education, Washington, DC Office on Educational Credit
    Department of Defense, Washington, DC 1978

    NV-0801-0004 NBC DEFENSE FOR PETTY OFFICERS

    Course Number: Not available.
    Location: Version I: Damage Control Training Center, Philadelphia, PA.
    Version 2: Damage Control School, Treasure Island, CA.
    Length: 3 weeks (90 hours).
    Exhibit Dates: 5/68-Present.
    Objectives: To train personnel to perform as advanced damage-control men strikers.
    Instruction: Lectures and practical exercises in nuclear, biological, and chemical defense afloat, including classification, detection, and decontamination of BW /CW agents and nuclear radiation; operation and maintenance of radiac equipment, maintenance of protective clothing and masks; training of personnel in monitoring and decontamination procedures for repair parties; nuclear warfare defense; and NBC warfare defense organization.
    Credit Recommendation: No credit because of the military nature of the course (5/74).

    NV-0801-0005 NBC WARFARE DEFENSE ASHORE

    Course Number: A-7K-011.
    Location: Version 1: Army Chemical School, Ft. McClellan, AL. Version 2: Schools Command, Treasure Island, CA.
    Length: 6 weeks (168-185 hours).
    Exhibit Dates: 4/66 – Present.
    Objectives: To Train officers to perform as disaster control officers for shore establishments.
    Instruction: Lectures and practical exercises in disaster control procedures, including organization; nuclear, biological and chemical agents and effects; nuclear, biological and chemical warfare defense and accident control; disaster control operation; radiological detection; and decontamination.
    Credit Recommendation: no credit because of the military nature of the course (12/68)

    NV-0802-0001 ABC DEFENSE FOR SHIPBOARD INSTRUCTORS

    Course Number: None
    Location: Damage Control Training Center, Treasures Island, CA
    Length: 3 Weeks (104 hours).
    Exhibit Dates: 1/62-12/68
    Objectives: To train enlisted personnel to assist officers in organizing and donducting training programs in shipboard defense.
    Instruction: Lectures in instructor training and in nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare defense afloat.
    Credit Recommendation: In the vocational certificate category, 1 semester hour in occupational safety (1/74), in the lower division baccalaureate/associate degree category, 1 semester hour in occupational safety (1/74)

    NV-0802-0008 ABC WARFARE DEFENSE AFLOAT

    Course Number: Not available.
    Location: Version 1: Damage Control Training Center, Philadelphia, PA. Version 2: Schools Command, Treasure Island, CA
    Length: 5 weeks (123-174 hours).
    Exhibit Dates: 12/59-12/68.
    Objectives: To train officers in atomic, biological, and chemical warfare defense afloat.
    Instruction: Lectures and practical exercises on ABC warfare defense afloat including atomic, biological, and chemical warfare effects on personnel, ships and equipment; methods used to reduce or negate these effects; casualty minimization; requirements of shipboard ABC-damage control; radiological detections; nuclear weapon accidents, protection and decontamination; disaster recovery; shipboard organization, and anti-personnel biological warfare.
    Credit Recommendation: No credit because of the specialized nature of the course (12/68).

    NV-1715-0545 RADIAC INSTRUMENT MAINTENANCE

    Course Number: A-670-0020.
    Location: Version 1: Damage Control School, Treasure Island, CA. Version 2: Naval Schools Command, Treasure Island, CA/
    Length: Version 1: 5 weeks (82 hours). Version 2: 4 weeks (90 hours).
    Exhibit Dates: Version 1: 8/70-Present.
    Version 2: 1/66-7/70.
    Objectives: To Train enlisted personnel to be radiac technicians.
    Instruction: Lectures and practical exercises in operation, maintenance, and repair of radiation related equipment, including dosage hazards, radiological monitoring and decontamination; basic nuclear physics; radiac computer indicator, detector, and calibrator maintenance; radioactive sources leak testing, atomic energy commission license requirements, electronics review; and standard test equipment.
    Credit Recommendation: Version 1: In the vocational certificate category, 2 semester hours in radiation equipment maintenance (4/74); in the lower-division baccalaureate/associate degree category, 2 semester hours in radiation equipment maintenance, and credit in physics laboratory on the basis of institutional examination (4/74); in the upper-division baccalaureate category, credit in electrical laboratory on the basis of institutional examination (4/74). Version 2: In the vocational certificate category, 1 semester hour in radiation equipment maintenance (4/74); in the lower-division (redacted) baccalaureate/associated degree category, 1 Semester hour in radiation equipment maintenance, and credit in physics laboratory on the basis of instructional examination (4/74); in the upper-division baccalaureate category, credit in electrical laboratory ON THE BASIS OF INSTITUTIONAL EXAMINATION (4/74).

    NV-1728-0012 DAMAGE CONTROLLMEN CLASS A HT-A PHASE 1

    Course Number: A-780-0035; A-780-0036.
    Location: Damage Control Training Center, Philadelphia, PA; Damage Control Training Center, Treasure Island, CA.
    Length: 7-8 weeks (240 hours).
    Exhibit Dates: 7/70-Present.
    Objectives: To train enlisted personnel in damage control techniques.
    Instruction: Lectures and practical exercises in hull and hull system, casualty control, shoring, hull and pipe patching, plastic repairs, firefighting, basic nuclear physics, characteristics of nuclear bursts, classification and detection of biological and chemical agents, shipboard decontamination, use and care of oxygen breathing equipment.
    Credit Recommendation: In/the vocational certificate category, 1 semester hour in firefighting, 3 in damage control (5/74); in the lower-division baccalaureate/associate degree category, 1 semester hour in firefighting, 3 in damage control (5/74)

    Naval Standards

    Apprentice (E-2)

    914 NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL (NBC) DEFENSE

    914201 Use of protective mask in a chamber or environment of riot control agent (CS) or dense smoke
    914202 Use of currently issued protective and self-aid equipment and methods of adapting regularly issued clothing and equipment for protection against contamination.
    914203 Markers used to indicate that an area in contaminated
    914204 Means by which biological operation agents enter the body
    914205 Methods of dissemination of agents : (A) aerosols; (B) sabotage
    914206 Methods used to decontaminate personnel

    914207 Use of atropine
    914208 Characteristics and effects of the following: (A) nerve agents; (B) blister agents; (C) blood agents; (D) choking agents; (E) screening agents
    914209 Protective measures to be followed in the event of NBC attack
    914210 Duties of member of a decontamination team
    914211 Duties of member of a monitoring team other than monitor
    914212 General procedures to be followed prior to, during, and after attack as set forth in the NBC defense bills

    Apprentice (E-3)

    914 NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL (NBC) DEFENSE

    914301 Effects of nuclear radiation (alpha and beta particles, gamma rays and neutrons)
    914302 Meanwhile of the following terms as applied to radiological defense: (A) radiac; (B) radiation dose; (C) radiation dose rate; (D) safe stay time; (E) material condition “Circle William”
    914303 Differences between radiation and radiological contamination
    914304 Purpose and use of the casualty dosimeter in terms of when used, by whom, and for what purpose
    914305 Purpose, use of, and how to interpret a self-reading pocket dosimeter

    Petty Officer Second Class (E-5)

    914 NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL (NBC) DEFENSE

    914501 Basic organization of teams to decontaminate radioactive areas and areas contaminated by chemical or biological agents.