The Uptake by Plants of Plutonium and Some Products of Nuclear Fission Adsorbed on Soil Colloids

[Editors note: plants absorb contaminants, so in radiological areas it is important to not landscape them, that by doing so spreads the radition or contaminates into the ecosystemand food chain. Extensive testing in this area was extensively conducted to determine the extent of the contamination. ]

“It has been found that barley and pea plants take up the fission elements Y (yttrium), Ce (cerium), Zr (zirconium) + Cb (columbium), Te (tellurium), Sr (strontium), and the three valence states of Pu (plutonium), even when these elements are present in trace amounts on the surfaces of clay or soil particles. For all the elements tested, the greatest fixation is in or on the roots. With the exception of Sr, translocation occurs only to a limited extent. The trans- location of Sr is relatively quite large. Activity levels of 0.1 microcuries per gram of soil are sufficient to cause very pronounced injury over a three-months period. (Technical Information Pilot, Sc. and Technol. Proj. by Library of Congress for Office of Naval Research, 13 Aug. ’48. Abstract furnished by Atomic Energy Commission of article by L. Jacobson and R. Overstreet)”

Citation: 24 Medical News Letter, Vol. 12, No. 6  Friday, 10 September 1948 p. 24$b364858?urlappend=%3Bseq=210


1946 Project Crossroads Nuclear Test Film

Here is a summary of the time stamps of this video:

Project Crossroads – Nuclear Test Film (1946)
Courtesy: U.S. Department of Energy

1:50 USS independence next to the Nagato before Test Able
2:20 target ships mapped
4:14 The scientists and samples
6:00 Radio controlled drones
7:00 Manhattan project scientists at Kwajalein
9:40 dropping of the bomb
14:31 diffused cloud “dangerous radioactive particles in the air had become so diffused it was no longer a danger to the area.”
15:52 camera on bikini showing shock wave.
17:20 map of what ships got hit as they dropped the bomb off target. Independence noted
18:55 Independence seen just after explosion when the support ships entered the lagoon.
21:54 animals
24:31 Skate stating the inside were damaged, so they went inside it.
25:21 USS Independence
27:34 Baker Test, second test underwater explosion.
40:00 USS Independence
Project Crossroads – Nuclear Test Film (1946)
Courtesy: U.S. Department of Energy

Continue reading “1946 Project Crossroads Nuclear Test Film”

Procedures for Decontamination of Plutonium From Various Surfaces, Skin

Christensen, E. L, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Procedures for Decontamination of Plutonium From Various Surfaces. Los Alamos, N.M.: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of the University of California, 1959. pp 19-21


Aluminum, Brass, Concrete, Glass, Iron and Mild Steel, Lucite, Plexiglass and Other Acrylic Plastics, Monel, Paint, Plastics Other Than Acryiic Based Plastics, Porcelain, Rubber, Skin, Stainless Steel and Tile.


Immediate use of a synthetic detergent-sequestrant mixture has been reported to give better decontamination than if the use of the mixture is preceded by soap and water wash. However, no temperature was given for the water used and if the water was warm enough to cause the pores to open, the decontamination solution, normally used cold, would have a difficult time removing the activity. At Los Alamos steps


one and two of the recommended procedure normally give sufficient decontamination.

For decontamination of hair, omit the KMnO4 treatment.

A. Recommended procedure.

1. Lather with liquid soap, using cold water, rinse thoroughly.
2. If count still remains, wash with synthetic detergent and sequestrant in a ratio of 1:2. Rinse with water.

a. Sequestrants such as:

  1. Na EDTA-
  2. Citric acid
  3. Sodium citrate
  4. Sodium tartrate
  5. Sodium phosphates
    1. b. Do not use oxalates!

C.P. Cleaner, manufactured by Finley Products, Inc., is also satisfactory. Apply as label directs.

3. If count still remains, scrub with KMnO4 crystals wet with just enough water to make thick paste. Rinse thoroughly. Repeat 5 times. Remove color with a 4% NaHSO3 solution. (Use only as a last resort.)

4. Apply TiO2 paste and rub thoroughly. Remove by swabbing. Rinse thoroughly with water.

B. Decontamination solutions in order of decreasing effectiveness.

1. TiO2 paste (expensive)
2. KMnO4 paste; color removed with 4% NaHSO3


3. Synthetic detergent – sequestrant
4. C.P. Cleaner or similar hand cleaner
5. 3% trisodium nitrolotriacetate – synthetic detergent
6. 3% Na citrate, ph 7.0
7. 3% Na acetate, ph 2.0
8. 3% Na tartrate, ph 7.0
9. 3% Na lactate, ph 7.0
10. 3% glycine
11. 3% Na acetate, ph 7.0
12. Water with liquid soap
13. Isotonic saline solution

USNRDL- 100 boxes of previously unknown Shipyard radiological documents – Dianne Feinstein 9-4-2004 Senate Hearings


p. 84-87

Question. What is the Navy’s estimated cost to complete the cleanup of Hunters Point Shipyard? What is the budget for the current fiscal year and each of the next 2 fiscal years?

Answer. Cost to complete for fiscal year 2004 and out is $103.9 million. Budgets for current and next 2 fiscal years are $40.2 million in fiscal year 2003, $21.6 million in fiscal year 2004, and $1.9 million in fiscal year 2005. Budget estimates for fiscal year 2004 and fiscal year 2005 assume the receipt of land sale revenue to finance cleanup costs.

Question. Given the Navy’s recent discovery of more than 100 boxes of previously unknown Shipyard radiological documents, will the new radiological review and survey work come at the expense of other important, and budgeted, cleanup activities or will the Navy find other funds to pay for it?

Answer. Funding to pay for the expanded Historical Radiological Assessment (HRA) will not be taken from funds budgeted for cleanup at Hunters Point.

Question. Does the Navy see any remaining hurdles to moving forward with the Conveyance Agreement in the next 1–2 months?

Answer. The Navy is working diligently with the City of San Francisco to reach agreement on the Hunters Point Conveyance Agreement.  The Navy’s goal is to achieve a mutually agreeable solution to the remaining two significant issues (utilities transition plan and finalization of the deeds) within the next 1 or 2 months.

Dublin California Radiation Experiments at Camp Parks


Camp Parks is a Air Force Base that was previously a Navy Base used for radiation experiments in the late 50’s to mid 60’s where they purposely spread radioactive materials onto streets, yards and buildings in order to figure out how to clean up after a nuclear blast. The Navy created dirty bomb incidents all over the Bay Area and trained military personnel from all branches to clean up after a nuclear blast to remove the radiation by scrubbing, firehosing or with street sweepers etc. In the early days, the late 1940’s they thought that fallout was not dangerous, it was not until Operation Castle in 1954 when radioactive fallout fell onto Enewetak Atoll where US military personnel were stationed as well as natives and they got radiation burned from the fallout.

Camp Parks Cobalt 60 Experiments
Camp Parks was used for many radiation experiments Which I will list above when I get the articles up on the site. Fortunately in Complex III tests they decided to limit the amount of radiation they spread onto the grounds, the roads and buildings to .1R per hour which today is a nuclear accident in a nuclear power plant.

Later it would dawn on the Navy that they could use a d
ifferent colored sand and then just count the grains to figure out the amount of fallout. Continue reading “Dublin California Radiation Experiments at Camp Parks”

Treasure Island – Naval Training Bulletin. 1956-57 June p 12 Damage Controlman, Class A Courses

Schools Command, US Naval Station, Treasure Island Calif., Naval Training Bulletin. 1956-57 June p 12 HathiTrust page

1. Fire Fighting (3 weeks fire-fighting; 1 week portable pumps) 4 weeks
2. Atomic and Chemical Defense Monitoring – 3 weeks
3. Basic Woodworking Tools and General Carpentry 4 weeks
4. Welding, Mathematics, and Blueprints 4 weeks
5. Practical Damage Control 4 weeks
6. Painting and Plastic Pipe Repair 2 weeks, 2 days

Treasure Island Atomic, Biological, and Chemical Warfare for Medical Officers

Medical News Letter, Vol. 33, No. 12 op. 20
Training in ABC Warfare for Medical Officers -A Four Weeks’ Course

Course #5 convening 4 January 1960
Location: U.S. Naval Schools Command, Naval Station, Treasure Island, San Francisco, Calif.
Student Clearance Required: SECRET
Reporting Time and Place: Prior to 2200, 3 January 1960, Personnel Office, U.S. Naval Schools Command, Bldg. 28

Course Objectives

The course is designed for experienced active duty Naval Medical officers possessing SECRET security clearance. It will stress the medical aspects of modern warfare and of military peace time operations, including problems incident to atomic, biological, and chemical weapons systems, nuclear propulsion, mass casualties, and isotope programs. Military aspects of the weapons systems and military countermeasures will also be considered so that Medical officers may function effectively on a staff and can reasonably assess the medical compromises imposed by the military situation. Outstanding speakers, both military and civilian, will be on the program. The course will include visits to the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory and the Naval Biological Laboratory; it will also include several practical exercises and drills. Texts will be provided for permanent retention Continue reading “Treasure Island Atomic, Biological, and Chemical Warfare for Medical Officers”

Treasure Island CA – Biological and Chemical Training Center US Navy Medical News Letter, Vol. 29, No. 5 Friday, l March 1957 page 14

Description of the Atomic, Biological and Chemical training center at Treasure Island Navy Base including the showers necessary to decontaminate the students from the Biological and Chemical Training Center at Treasure Island.

The Evolution of the USS Pandemonium US Navy Medical News Letter, Vol. 29, No. 5 Friday, l March 1957 page 14

The old adage, “Big oaks from little acorns grow, ” was recently demonstrated at the Biological and Chemical Warfare Defense School at Treasure Island, Calif. In July 1955, an old deckhouse served as a mockup for shipboard training in biological and chemical warfare counter-measures. Today, the deckhouse has grown into the USS Pandemonium, a full-scale mockup of a 173 PC.
The Pandemonium has been designed throughout for the teaching of all phases of ABC shipboard defense and recovery techniques. It was constructed from a set of general plans of the PC-1170 and !rom photos of the PC-116. Continue reading “Treasure Island CA – Biological and Chemical Training Center US Navy Medical News Letter, Vol. 29, No. 5 Friday, l March 1957 page 14”

Yuba City B52 Crash with two Hydrogen Bombs on board 14 March 1961

B-52 Crash, Yuba City CA “Broken Arrow” (1961) 12:40

Editor’s Note: This is the correspondence of officials for the crash of a B-52 bomber just outside of Yuba City California with two hydrogen bombs on board. Note that in the beginning of this they did not know if the bombs had detonated on the crash site. Directly below is the link to a video of the crash site which shows that the destruction of the airplane was complete and that all the hopeful thinking and initial reporting by news agencies was just speculation. You will see that as the information came in you see panic on the part of the local fire department where they had a wreck on the way to the crash site resulting in the death of a fireman. As with any disaster people hope for the best but they really cannot determine what happened until they get to the scene.
Also this shows you the documentation of each of these events. The military writes down everything even when they are covering up information such as the plutonium injections in San Francisco, Chicago, Rochester, Oak Ridge and New York. It is all written down even when they are conspiring to keep the information classified so it will not get out to the public. All of it is written down, you just have to know where to look.

Note there is no information on whether the area was decontaminated. No superfund site, no state site, nothing. This is symptomatic of the disconnect between the DOD and the EPA.

B-52 Crash, Yuba City CA “Broken Arrow” (1961) Video of the crash site.

Joint Nuclear Accident Coordinating Center Record of Events:

“1150 MST 15 March 1961. Lt Col Sweenam, SAC Liaison Officer, to Lt Col Schuyler, Chief JNACC
Col S: This is Col Sweetnam, SAC. We had another North Carolina type incident. It’s B-52F on a cover all mission, carrying two (redacted) (redacted) And it went in 15 miles SW of Yuba City, California Time was 1807Z on the 14th. Just about an hour ago. And the aircraft was out of the 5134 Strategic Wing, Mather AFB. They come under our 15th AF. And the only other information we have is that they sent a airplane for refueling. Somehow the B-52 went out of control. The Aircraft commander notified control room that they were bailing out and there has been a report that the aircraft was burning, but there been no evidence of detonation of any type. And that was the information that was phoned in from the SAC control room. They’ll keep us posted and we’ll let you know if there are further developments.” Continue reading “Yuba City B52 Crash with two Hydrogen Bombs on board 14 March 1961”

Farallon Islands Nuclear Waste sites

The Navy dumped over 47,000 barrels of nuclear waste off the coast of San Francisco near the Farallon Islands. This is a map of their locations. Unfortunately they were supposed to bury it in deep water but it can be found in water 300 meters deep .

John L. Chin and Allan Ota,”Disposal of Dredged Material and Other Waste on the Continental Shelf and Slope” U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia: 2001 Circular 1198 (full-length technical version) p 201

The USS Independence which according to Navy Records was sunk at the approximate location of this map was actually found farther south in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. USS Independence Irradiated in Nuclear Tests found in Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary
E/V Nautilus explores the Flight Deck of the USS Independence

Most of that 47000 barrels of nuclear waste were stored on the ship when they sunk the Air Craft Carrier. So the amounts sunk in the Farallon Islands must be adjusted.
Continue reading “Farallon Islands Nuclear Waste sites”